WORDS

or

LANGUAGE, WORDS AND METAPHYSICS

ANIL MITRA PHD, COPYRIGHT © May 2004
uPDATE MAY 2018

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OUTLINE

Outline – blue arrows    link to the topic in the table of contents; descriptive links go to the text

 

Contents

 

Plans    |    Word Systems    |    Documents to Integrate, Other Sources    |    Introduction

  Substance Ontology    |      Language

  Alternative Metaphysics    |      Being Words    |      Basic Words    |      Mind Words

  Knowledge Words    |      Transformation Words

Copyright


CONTENTS

PLANS  5

WORD SYSTEMS  6

DOCUMENTS TO INTEGRATE, OTHER SOURCES  6

INTRODUCTION  6

General Considerations  7

Detailed Systems  7

Plan for detailed systems  7

Outline and Plan for Words  8

1        SUBSTANCE ONTOLOGY  8

1.1        Substance Ontology  9

1.2        Agents, mind… and metaphysics  9

1.2.1        Experience, attitude and agency as characterizing ‘dimensions’ of mind  10

1.2.2        Communication  10

1.3        Examples of some word forms  10

1.4        Materialism   11

1.4.1        An Agent-Metaphysics  11

2        LANGUAGE  11

2.1        Propositions  11

2.2        Speech Acts  11

2.3        Words, Meaning, and the Subject-Predicate form   11

2.3.1        Syntax, Grammar 11

Plans: Alternative Syntax  12

2.3.2        Words  12

2.4        Word Play  13

2.4.1        Sound, sign, context and symbol 13

2.4.2        Use, practice and paradigm   13

2.4.3        Language, languages and linguistics  13

2.4.4        Metaphysical possibility  13

2.5        Common Word Plays  13

2.5.1        Being at play in the field of the real 13

2.5.2        Sentences as words  13

2.5.3        Compounding of words  13

2.5.4        Word stems: concept and use  13

2.5.5        Standard or common stems, affixes and inflections  13

2.6        Linguistics  13

2.7        Philosophy of language  16

2.8        Philosophy of language, central concerns – what are they and what should they be? 17

2.8.1        Mental aspects of language  17

2.8.2        Language and the world  18

2.8.3        Language mechanisms  19

3        ALTERNATIVE METAPHYSICS  19

3.1        Construction of metaphysics: local and universal metaphysics  19

3.2        Systems in which there are no elementary objects  19

3.3        Systems in which there are no absolute objects  20

3.4        Systems in which mind is fundamental 20

3.5        On the authenticity of local metaphysics  20

3.6        A Fundamental Principle of Metaphysics  21

3.6.1        The Word ‘Nothing’ and Alternatives  21

3.6.2        Basis in the Latest Science?  21

3.6.3        Basis in Metaphysical Argument 22

3.6.4        Basis in Being  22

Plan: Explore Words for Alternative Metaphysics  23

4        BEING WORDS  23

4.1        … essential words for basic Metaphysics  23

4.2        A system of Being Words  23

4.2.1        Some Words  23

4.2.2        Alternate Words  23

4.2.3        Generators  23

4.2.4        Concepts  24

4.2.5        Sources  24

4.3        Some issues of use and the ontological status of objects  24

4.3.1        A solution to the metaphysical dilemma  24

4.4        Comment on being at play in the field of the evolution of language  24

Plan for Being Words  25

4.5        Being words are among the fundamental 25

4.6        What is the basis of Being words?  25

4.7        An a-material Agent metaphysics  26

4.7.1        Introduction  26

4.7.2        The a-material agent metaphysics  26

4.8        The problems of the Agent-Metaphysics  26

Plan for Agent-Metaphysics words  27

5        BASIC WORDS  27

5.1        The concept 27

Plan for being and basic words  27

Some plans for basic words  27

5.2        Key ideas for basic words  27

5.2.1        Word, concept and object 27

5.2.2        Metaphysics  27

5.2.3        Word  28

5.2.4        Concept and object 28

5.3        The implementation  28

5.4        Topics and Words to be Explained  28

5.4.1        Metaphysics  28

5.4.2        Language and Metaphysics  28

5.4.3        Language and Logic  29

5.4.4        Language  29

5.4.5        Elements of Language  29

5.4.6        Grammar and Syntax  30

5.4.7        Sentences - parts of speech  31

5.4.8        Semantics  33

5.5        Linguistics glossary  33

Sources and plans for language and linguistics  33

5.5.1        Concepts – linguistics  33

5.5.2        Thoughts – language  33

Additional Plans for basic words  33

Plan: develop and mesh the following with being words  34

6        MIND WORDS  34

6.1        Introduction  34

6.2        Theory: words for the study and philosophy of mind  34

6.2.1        Metaphysics and theory  34

6.2.2        Aspects of Mind  36

6.2.3        Biological Aspects  40

6.2.4        Artificial Intelligence  40

6.2.5        Scientific Aspects  40

6.3        Description: words that are used to communicate mental function  41

Plan: words descriptive of mental state  41

6.3.1        Cognition and attitude  41

6.3.2        perceiving qualities, sensing  41

6.3.3        perceiving objects, perception  44

6.3.4        conceiving, thinking  45

6.4        Feeling and experience  45

6.4.1        experience  45

6.4.2        alertness  46

6.5        Emotion  46

6.5.1        simple emotions  46

6.5.2        other emotions, mental states characterized by emotionality  46

6.5.3        mood  46

6.6        Agency  47

6.6.1        willing or conation  47

6.6.2        acting  47

6.7        Being  47

6.8        Integration and personality  47

6.8.1        dynamics  47

6.8.2        neurosis  48

6.8.3        personality factors  48

6.8.4        gestalt 48

7        KNOWLEDGE WORDS  48

7.1        Preliminary  48

Some Plans for Knowledge Words  48

7.2        Knowledge Words of a general nature  48

7.3        Functions  49

7.3.1        Cognition  49

7.3.2        Emotion  49

7.3.3        Motivation  49

7.3.4        Intuition  49

7.4        Degrees of Certainty  49

7.5        Modes of Expression and Communication  50

7.5.1        General communication  50

7.5.2        Action - stylized as/for communication  50

7.5.3        Iconic Expression or Depiction  50

7.5.4        Language  50

7.5.5        Para-verbal 50

7.5.6        Combined symbolic and iconic  50

7.6        Specialized Knowledge Words  51

7.7        Innate Knowledge  51

7.7.1        Innate Knowledge - Human  52

7.7.2        Innate Knowledge - Species  52

7.7.3        Innate Knowledge - Physical, Ultimate  52

7.8        The Object of Knowledge  52

7.9        Relation Between Mind and World  52

7.9.1        How the world presents or appears in knowledge  52

7.10      World Constitution - Relation to Mind  52

7.10.1       World is "made" of knowledge categories  52

7.10.2       Realism - world exists independently of knowledge  53

7.11      Theories of truth  53

7.12      Traditional 53

7.13      Deflationary  53

Plans for the second part of Knowledge Words  53

8        TRANSFORMATION WORDS  53

8.1        Seeing  54

8.2        Doing  62

8.3        Being  67

8.4        Other 73

LATEST REVISION AND COPYRIGHT  73


PLANS

Long term plan  6

Plan for detailed systems  7

Outline and Plan for Words  8

Plans: Alternative Syntax  12

Plan: Explore Words for Alternative Metaphysics  23

Plan for Being Words  25

Plan for Agent-Metaphysics words  27

Plan for being and basic words  27

Some plans for basic words  27

Sources and plans for language and linguistics  33

Additional Plans for basic words  34

Plan: develop and mesh the following with being words  34

Plan: words descriptive of mental state  41

Some Plans for Knowledge Words  48

Plans for the second part of Knowledge Words  53


WORD SYSTEMS

Word System 01       Categories and Generators  7

Word System 02         Words for Linguistics  13

Word System 03         Philosophy of Language  17

Word System 04         Nothingness  21

Word System 05         Alternative Metaphysics  23

Word System 06         Some Being Words  23

Word System 07         Agent-Object Metaphysics  27

Word System 08         A Set of Basic Words  34

Word System 09         Mind Words  34

Word System 10       Knowledge Words: Concepts  48

Word System 11       Knowledge Words. Systems for the disciplines and practical arts  53

Word System 12       Transformation Words. Seeing, Doing, Being and other Transformation Words  54

 


DOCUMENTS TO INTEGRATE, OTHER SOURCES

Teal font marks a long term plan

Long term: study languages


INTRODUCTION

The purpose of Words is to list a set of words adequate to the purposes of Journey in Being. Language is a window on reality or, more accurately, a window on reality as known to the bearers of language. A second, implicit and related purpose is to formulate principles – critical and imaginative – by which such a list may be formulated

Journey in Being has a number of levels – from the personal to the universal and it includes the human “enterprise” of being and of knowledge. Thus the purpose of Words is to write principles for formulation of a system of “words” adequate to the being and knowledge “purpose.”

What is the purpose behind the purpose? It is not that such a list would be a complete specification of the possibilities of the Journey or of a metaphysics. Rather, such a list would be a contribution toward such purposes that would need supplement and correction according to occasions. Additionally, I expect to learn about the Journey, the world and metaphysics by study of linguistic possibility and the relation between word and world – between language, metaphysics and metaphysical possibility

It is clear that, regarded as a formal or logical task, the formulation and specification of a complete list of words is difficult if not impossible. The best that can be hoped for is to have a partial list that is otherwise open and would be adjusted to the needs as they arise. The purpose includes but is not primarily focused on the formal aspects of the enterprise

General Considerations

Accordingly, Words begins with a standard western metaphysics, the substance ontology, and its relation to a standard western form of truth expression, the subject-predicate form of the proposition or assertion. This is immediately generalized to the variety of kinds of speech act regarded as relation between word [or mind] and world. This system has a number of limitations which are considered next

On the side of metaphysics, I consider other metaphysical systems in which certain narrowing assumptions of the substance ontology are relinquished. On the side of language, I consider that thought is not restricted to language as conventionally understood and that the relationship between language and metaphysics is not as tight as may have been presupposed in the development based on the substance ontology. To some extent this is anticipated by allowing kinds of speech act beyond the proposition. Implicit here, since the other kinds of speech act are not directly about the world, is the consideration that not all meanings and uses can be specified by a dictionary, i.e., a listing of words and the ‘objects’ to which they refer. Some words have no direct referents but have effects upon the listener; language is also a vehicle of communication. Additionally, any system of words, regardless of its rational basis is in some ways no more than suggestive – formal language is [analogous to] a growing axiomatic system; this is because any actual system of metaphysics cannot pretend to completeness and because language, again, as usually understood, is not the only vehicle of thought. Is language [or its possibilities] adequate to the possibilities of thought, thought adequate to the possibilities of metaphysics and metaphysics adequate to the possibilities and actualities of being?

The standard metaphysics suggests a basic set of words and the alternative considerations suggest additions and refinements. The working out of a basic set requires some elaborations of metaphysics and occasions

Detailed Systems

Variety is built up by considering a variety of occasions

Plan for detailed systems

Eliminate this section

Gather all ideas and execute – including the following

Word System 1.      Categories and Generators

WORDS AND THEIR GENERATORS

BASIC / BEING WORDS

Word categories, parts of speech – elements of metaphysics, e.g

Substance Ontology

A system of Being Words [see]

What is the basis of Being words?

Syntax – metaphysical possibility

Existence – being, becoming

Alternate systems

USE [fills in details, the practical side of theory for basic / being words]

Survival

Growth… culture, exploration… growth into all being

MIND WORDS

Generators of mind words

Mind Words: Words for the study and philosophy of mind | Words that are used to communicate mental function

Quality

Knowledge and concepts of knowledge

Vision and transformation

TRANSFORMATION WORDS

The system of Experiments in Transformation of Being

SYSTEMS OF KNOWLEDGE

Formal systems – including descriptions, specifications of informal systems

Content and theory or concepts

Practical arts

 

Outline and Plan for Words

Change this section title to “Outline;” eliminate the heading in “Plan” MS Word-Style

Words begins with the substance ontology and its relation to the subject-predicate form of the proposition. The five standard forms of speech act are introduced as functions of propositional content and illocutionary force. Various interpretations of the substance ontology are considered. This system forms a foundation for the standard vocabulary and syntax

Alternatives are based in [1] alternative metaphysics, [2] use and [3] thought that is not in language as conventionally understood

More on metaphysics and its relation to kinds of words and combinations [syntax…]

More on word construction and forms – alphabets, syllabaries, phonemes…

A variety of specialized systems is introduced as outlined above in Detailed Systems from Vision and the Words documents

1           SUBSTANCE ONTOLOGY

I start with substance ontology because, despite its recognized inadequacies, it remains in the background. It is ever present; when we forget it enters into our intuitive thinking; it is present in language in the often implicit presupposition that the ‘subject-predicate’ form of proposition embodies the finally adequate mode of statement about the actual world [Whitehead.]

1.1         Substance Ontology

On a simple substance metaphysics, the world is made up of objects with the following nature or predication:

Constitution. Each object has a constitution that is either elementary or compound. [Can an elementary object have interactions?]

Properties. The features that define an object and distinguish one from another are its properties. Properties are sometimes distinguished as primary and secondary. The primary properties are intrinsic, objective or true properties – simply the properties. The secondary properties are apparent, subjective qualities. However, the distinction is not clear. Thus, simply, the features that define and distinguish objects are properties. This leads to the Leibniz principle of indescernibles: for all objects x, y and properties φ, if φ(x) = φ(y) for all φ then x = y

Examples of properties are mass, position, temperature. Constitution may be regarded as a property. Examples of qualities are color and taste

Change. Objects may change with respect to constitution, properties [and qualities.]

Interaction. Objects have effects upon one other. ‘Effects’ cause ‘change.’ [If origins are regarded as effects, then effects determine the [properties of] the object.]

Examples of effects are force, heat transfer, creation/transfer of constituent objects

Objects have various types of relationship. They may be near or far, one object may be hotter than another… Relationships are expressed through comparison and difference of properties. Relationships among constituent objects constitute properties of the object

1.2         Agents, mind… and metaphysics

The point regarding truth and propositions can be expressed as follows: there are sentient beings or objects that perceive objects… and this may be generalized:

There are beings or agents that know [feel, perceive, and conceive,] think and decide, intend and execute action. Agents are effectual

Thus agents have

§         Objecthood

§         Sentience – experiencing, feeling and perceiving

Feeling is a form of perception

In the basic use perception is limited to direct awareness through sensation. Of course, to perceive a objects as such requires some degree of conception. There is another use of “perception” includes cognition and contemplation

§         Cognition – knowing and conceiving

Cognition includes perception and contemplation

Just as feeling is a form of perception, so feeling and emotion are forms of cognition

§         Contemplation – thought and decision

§         Communication

When an agent shares the contents of its mind with other agents, he or she communicates. Talking, gesturing, writing, acting are usually intentional communication. Body language, tone of voice, facial expression are often non-intentional communication. In ‘acting,’ however, behaviors that are often or normally not intentional may be used intentionally. This kind of acting is, obviously, not limited to plays. Some actions that are not primarily communication may result in a communication, e.g., not going to someone’s birthday party; and such cases of communication may be intentional or incidental

§         Agency – intention, choice, will and execution

In this use, intentionality is distinct from intensionality; intentionality, however, is commonly used in the sense of intensionality

Agents have mind, that is, the characteristics of mind are among those of agent hood. To what extent do/must the above appear in combination and how does that affect metaphysics

In the present state of human knowledge, there appears to be no universally accepted given or fixed simple set of categories or poles in terms of which all states, aspects and processes of mind can be specified. In the set of characteristics above, decision is a part of contemplation [which itself has multiple uses] and is a necessary part of the knowledge/judgment process even though it seems that it would also fit under agency. A tentative set of poles [Samuel Guttenplan, ed., A Companion to the Philosophy of Mind, 1994] is:

1.2.1        Experience, attitude and agency as characterizing ‘dimensions’ of mind

Here, “agency” is somewhat different than above. These pure poles do not, perhaps, exist in themselves. Pure experience is close to feeling and, in itself, is not about the world; attitudes are about the world and are close to “intensionality…” they include propositional attitudes such as belief, knowledge… and other attitudes that correspond, more or less in their kind, to the Speech Acts below; some of the speech acts other than the propositional are “on the way” to agency which is acting or doing

§         Experience

Phenomenal consciousness is close to being identical to experience but what is called “access consciousness” is attitudinal in some measure. Awareness, pain, are very close to pure experience. The emotions are largely experiential but are also, as being about the world, attitudinal. Among emotions, feelings about the closest to pure experience; and anger has a higher agency content than most emotions since anger is conducive to action

§         Attitude

Thinking, belief, desire, knowledge are highly attitudinal

§         Agency

As an example, reaching is very close to being pure agency. Intending, willing, inferring, deciding, choosing are characterized highly by agency

1.2.2        Communication

Communication is, perhaps, roughly equidistant from experience, attitude and agency. There is clearly an action; and what is communicated may be an experience and/or an attitude

Communication is not necessarily about the world; communication does not necessarily indicate, in itself, a mind-world or symbol-world relationship. Imagine early communication: an animal is about to run from, say, a threat. First, the threat is registered. Then, perhaps, the autonomous system is engaged. Between the engagement of the autonomous system – adrenaline is pumped into the bloodstream – and the action, running, there may be preparatory signs – a tensing of muscles, a larger inhalation, a grunt as part of the effort and getting ready for effort. All this is rapid and yet noticed by others of the group; and it is part of what galvanizes action in the others. There is communication but it is in the world and not about the world. We may, perhaps, say that the system of the group and the communication is, in the action from first observation to the group in running motion, about the world… but the communication, itself, is about the world. It is with later development that the communication itself is about the world

1.3         Examples of some word forms

Above is the source of some word forms. ‘I’ the agent as agent, as subject; ‘me’ the agent as object. I is the nominative or subjective case; me is objective. The possessive case ‘mine’ is more complex and requires the relationship of possession – a social construct

The object and agent [of the subject ontology] and their predicates form the foundation for common word forms – the parts of speech

Systematic treatment will come later

1.4         Materialism

There are objects that have none of the features of agency except objecthood. These are ‘material’ objects

The world is made up of material objects. According to materialism ‘I’, ‘mind’ are constituted by material objects

1.4.1        An Agent-Metaphysics

While materialism is a substance ontology, substance ontology is not necessarily materialism. In materialism, agents are material even if the that is difficult to see. The agent can also be the basis of a substance ontology

An agent has a ‘body’ but the agency is not the body. In materialism, the agency is the organizing-processing of the body or it otherwise reduces to the body as in behaviorism and functionalism

If the agent is understood as above, the agent-metaphysics would seem to be a dualism because agency and objecthood are distinct and to be a true monism, the substance must be simple, i.e., it must have no features. From a theoretical point of view, this dualism is simpler because there is less to explain. However, monism, is aesthetically pleasing and efficient because the assumptions in a monistic theory are fewer than in dualism. However, aesthetics is subjective and efficiency is secondary to truth

Further, the metaphysics of A Fundamental Principle of Metaphysics is simpler, even, than monism

At the present, I leave the question of dualism vs. monism in the local metaphysics open. From the practical point of view the agent as object plus agency is a reasonable basis for ontology

2           LANGUAGE

2.1         Propositions

A claim to truth [about an object] is a proposition and the expression of a proposition is an assertion or, in language, a propositional sentence. A propositional sentence is often, conveniently, called an assertion or proposition

Colloquially, when propositions and propositional sentences are not distinguished, a proposition is the expression of a claim to truth

[‘Declaration’ is sometimes used to mean ‘assertion;’ however, ‘declaration’ has another use and will not be used, here, as synonymous to ‘assertion.’]

2.2         Speech Acts

Language has uses other than expression of truth assertions. There are five forms of speech act [for details see Kinds of Knowledge, Origins of Language] each of which has propositional content and illocutionary force. By varying the illocutionary force the five kinds of speech act are obtained: assertive, directive, commissive, expressive, declarative

2.3         Words, Meaning, and the Subject-Predicate form

A proposition is about the world. The world is made up of elements that are denoted by words. Thus propositions [speech acts] are made up of words

2.3.1        Syntax, Grammar

The standard form of the proposition [thus of speech acts] is the subject-predicate form. This is a foundation of the standard syntax, i.e. the syntax of the sentence. Note that the subject is not necessarily an object as described above but may also be a process or other elements, e.g. “Running is good.”

Plans: Alternative Syntax

Alternatives to the standard syntax are, currently, sparsely spread in this document. When Basic Words is incorporate the simple standard syntax will be described in detail. Further alternatives may then be given

2.3.2        Words

As noted above words denote the elements of the world. In the standard syntax, a word or a part of the subject-predicate form do not constitute complete independent meaning or sentence. However, it is not clear that a conventional sentence is either necessary or sufficient to bear complete independent meaning. The correspondence between words and elements is only approximate; some words do not clearly refer to any thing or subject

We can tell the following story. The first words denoted the common objects in the immediate world. This is an approximation because, possibly, the first words were involuntary natural sounds that occurred in certain situations – fear producing inhalation and a tone of “surprise,” effort producing a “grunt” as the result of straining. [Something may be said about the coevolution of primitive communication, voice boxes and ears.] Clearly, words also denote feeling. We may improve upon the assertion above – the first words were the common elements of speech acts occasioned in the world

However, the number of elements is many. Likely, writing was the occasion for development of word-elements such as alphabets and syllabaries. Likely, the original elements were derived from icons originally associated with basic words

Compound words are formed by joining the elements of speech acts [elementary words] just as compound subjects [including objects] are constituted of various kinds of join of elementary subjects; this, then, becomes the metaphor for compounding in general. There are common elements of compounding: prefix, suffix and infix. Other forms of compounding include “conjunction;” the conjunctions [and, but…] may be seen as denoting the combination of elements of the world or, alternatively but somewhat equivalently, the elements of speech acts. In some languages [German, Inuit,] word compounding is a part of the language process rather than an act of authority. Objecthood has a degree of arbitrariness that is reflected by freedom in word compounding. Objecthood is not completely arbitrary and hence limits to compounding in context; different languages have different norms, perhaps as the result of different attitudes to the real. What is an object in one context is a “compound” in another context; flexibility in compounding recognizes this “duplicity of objecthood;” and it also recognizes the creative aspect of perception and cognition. Clearly this affects the background metaphysics. The account of differences among languages is approximate; languages tend to go through periods of flux and rigidity

As a [non-exclusive] alternative to the account based in writing, phonemes – likely based in natural sounds, the sounds naturally produced in context – form the “alphabet” for words. What is a natural sound? As suggested above, there are no true natural sounds but, rather, there was likely a coevolution of sound, voice and hearing. The natural sounds, then, are the earliest sounds in this coevolution or, alternatively, they are those sounds selected for purposes of explanation from the evolution of sound that form a basis of all spoken words

This simple account is only an approximation. That words correspond to elements of the world and that the standard form of the proposition is the subject-predicate form are founded in the substance ontology. In fact, the meanings of words are founded in use; the dictionary is an approximation even at a given point in time. There are forms other than the subject-predicate. The sentence “Flow” as the statement of a feeling or expression makes “sense” even on the substance ontology

The foundation of much linguistics and philosophy is thus, at least implicitly, in the substance ontology. This provides a convenient approximation that is the source of much error

In a materialist [substance] ontology, mind is constituted of matter; and mind and matter are distinct. This, too, is the source of much error

2.4         Word Play

Words are relatively fixed, phrases and sentences are relatively mutable; but the distinction is not absolute. Word play refers to word use and formation; included are sounds, syllables, phonemes; signs and symbols; words – simple and compound, words and [common] word stems – prefix, suffix, infix; phrases, sentences and other forms that build [descriptions of] occasions and environments in language or out of “words.”

2.4.1        Sound, sign, context and symbol

…Origins

2.4.2        Use, practice and paradigm

Including the implicit…

Synthesis and synthesizing

Use and paradigm come before the dictionary. Two aberrations of the dictionary are: meaning as word-object correspondence, and meaning as fixed. Word-object correspondence is a special case of meaning. There are degrees of fixity and authority. In all cases, use is prior

2.4.3        Language, languages and linguistics

2.4.4        Metaphysical possibility

Use and paradigm come before metaphysical possibility

Metaphysical possibility is possibility – there is no distinction. I use the word metaphysical to emphasize the fact that the real includes and is much greater than the given… and that the given is fluid, mutable and mutating, psychological rather than logical

The idea of metaphysical possibility may employ metaphysical systems but does not endorse any given metaphysical system

2.5         Common Word Plays

2.5.1        Being at play in the field of the real

Or, word play is part of our being-in-the-world… see Basis in Being

This includes Word Play

2.5.2        Sentences as words

E.g., Inuit

2.5.3        Compounding of words

E.g., German

2.5.4        Word stems: concept and use

Stem = underlying word form = root [+affix, i.e., prefix, suffix, infix]

Word = stem [+inflection]

2.5.5        Standard or common stems, affixes and inflections

This is worked out in the following. Comprehensiveness is not an object

 

2.6         Linguistics

Word System 2.      Words for Linguistics

alphabet of sounds

analogy, role of

anthropological linguistics

applied linguistics

assimilated

atomism

autolexical syntax

autonomy of linguistic competence

classification;

cognitive grammar

communication-and-cognition

communication-and-cognition perspective

comparative method

comparative philology

competence

compounding

computational linguistics

constructive grammar

context

Creoles

deduction

description

descriptive adequacy

diachronic

diachronic linguistics

dialect atlases

dialect geography

dialectology

discovery procedures

explanation

explanatory adequacy

explanatory criteria

French functionalism

functional grammar

functionalism

generative grammar

Grimm’s law

head movement

head-driven phrase structure grammar

illocutionary force

induction

inner form

language ability

language acquisition

language and logic

language classification

language of thought

langue

linguistic competence

linguistic geography

listeme

mathematical linguistics

meaning-text

meaning-text theory

mentalist theory

micro vs. macro

minimalism

morphemes

morphology

morphosyntax

natural language processing

observational adequacy

outer form

parole

philology

philosophy of language

phoneme

phonetics

phonological rule

phonology

pidgin

polysynthetic

poverty of stimulus argument

pragmatic adequacy

Prague school

Prague school dependency grammar

psycholinguistics

psychological adequacy

role and reference grammar

semantics

social dialectology

sociolinguistics

speech perception

St. Petersburg school of functional grammar

stratificational approach

stratificational grammar

structuralism

stylistics

synchronic

synchronic linguistics

synchronic vs. diachronic

syntactic unit

syntactocentric

syntax

tagmemics

theoretical vs. applied

theory of markedness

transformational grammar

typological adequacy

understanding

universal features

universal tendencies

universals

verbal proform

Whorfian hypothesis

word grammar

 

2.7         Philosophy of language

linguistics – the study of language, studying language itself, especially as spoken, and as written; not essentially distinct from philology; modern linguistics emphasizes scientific method and that is a strength but also limiting if science means anything other than being critical, discerning, penetrating, imaginative and insightful and realistic

philosophy of language – the concept of language: what is language, the relation of language to other abilities – language and communication / thought / expression, the origin and function / role of language, relation of language to other mental function [this is repetition] – consciousness, emotion etc., language and logic… and mathematics… and science, and evolution; philosophy tends to have esoteric connotations but there is a sense in which it is most central and basic, a sense in which philosophy as an exercise is the name for any discipline that comes before all disciplines, conscious being attempting the final adventure of thought and being is philosophical; analytic philosophy is the modern school that has language as a basic focus – originally the central focus and the essential method

linguistics and philosophy of language, relationship – there is much potential for relationship yet there is little mutual influence between modern linguistics and modern philosophy of language. Lack of a relationship does not imply a poverty but insistence on rigid compartments would. Chomsky has suggested that work in generative grammar lends support to the rationalist view of the source of knowledge; and linguists have shown interest in treatments, in philosophy of language, of reference, quantification, and presupposition, in systems of modal logic, and in the “philosophy of ordinary language.”

origins of language – this has a bio-psycho-social component, with interpretation in philosophy of language and implications for linguistics

 

Word System 3.      Philosophy of Language

2.8         Philosophy of language, central concerns – what are they and what should they be:

2.8.1        Mental aspects of language

The subjective side: what is happening in the individual as he or she is “languaging” – what is the sense or meaning and what is the nature of meaning… to which the formal answer is in theories of meaning

analytic

convention

dispositional states

holism

intention

interpretation, radical

inverted spectrum and privacy

knowledge, non-linguistic

knowledge, tacit

linguistic meaning

meaning

meaning, linguistic

meaning, speaker

metaphor

metaphysics

molecularity

naturalizing semantics

naturalizing: everything is described by the natural sciences

non-linguistic knowledge

norms

pragmatics

pragmatism

privacy

privacy and inverted spectrum

problem of the inverted spectrum

propositional attitudes

radical interpretation

rule following

rules

semantic

speaker meaning

synthetic

tacit knowledge

truth conditions

understanding

use

verification

2.8.2        Language and the world

The objective side: thought includes the function of being about the world, so how is language about the truth and reality of the world… or how language enables expression and communication of the individual’s thoughts and other mental function that is about the world

analytic truth

analyticity

coherence

correspondence

customs

dictionary theory

epistemic vagueness

fact

metaphysical realism

metaphysical realism, model theoretic argument against

objectivity

openness

pragmatism

realism

redundancy

rule following

rules

semantic

semantic vagueness

sorites

synthetic truth

translation, indeterminacy of

truth

truth theories

2.8.3        Language mechanisms

How does language accomplish what it does: to which a formal answer is in the concepts of reference, identity and necessity

 

contingency

demonstratives

essentialism

identity over time, paradoxes of

identity, criteria of

identity, relative

indexicals and demonstratives

indexicals, designation of, depends on context

indexicals, e.g. i, you, that, then, here, now, today, yesterday, actual, present

metaphysical essentialism

modal realism

modality

naming

necessity

objects

possibility

possible worlds

reference

relative identity

rigid designation, names and

sortals, counting and

3           ALTERNATIVE METAPHYSICS

This section is about metaphysics that are alternative to substance ontology

3.1         Construction of metaphysics: local and universal metaphysics

A local metaphysics is a metaphysics of the immediate world e.g. of human experience

A universal or global metaphysics is one of all possible beings and universes; a universal metaphysics goes beyond experience to what is real, beyond the immediate to the universal

How is a universal metaphysics possible? Two approaches are extrapolation and the transcendental method associated commonly with the name of Kant

There remains a sense in which a universal metaphysics is a shortcut way of describing, understanding or formulating the local metaphysics

3.2         Systems in which there are no elementary objects

E.g. objects are inherently transitional, always have structure. Since there are no elementary objects there are no substances. Thus the subject-predicate form is not the general form of the proposition. This has consequences for language

An example is the sentence “Flow.”

Other examples of propositions that are not expressible in the subject-predicate form:

An object is in transition into another object; this is not expressed in the subject-predicate form

Two or more objects in interaction

[Use the formulations of physics to make these examples concrete.]

3.3         Systems in which there are no absolute objects

What constitutes a perceived object as an object? The dual problem of the object is the one of perception [cognition] and reality.

An object-as-known is at once real and an assignment-in-perception. Given that genesis and agents are the joint authors of the objecthood but only genesis or being is the author of the existence of objects, what constitutes an object apart from our authority? The object behind the object-as-known: what is that?

It is not that the perception creates the object nor is the question at all one of accuracy of perception. Since we have no handle on the world apart from cognition, we have no handle on objects in themselves: the object behind the object-as-known is the object-as-better-known or, in the limit, the only knowable object is the object-as-known through the sum of all perceptions and reasons. We may think that there is a real object behind the object-as-known but even the real object is a theoretical assignment e.g. through science. What constitutes the absolute objecthood of the elementary particles of physics or the species or organisms of biology?

We may say, metaphorically, that “raw” reality has confluence in objects and agents and the perceptions or cognitions of agents; these are the stable concretizations of the primal real. Thus the perceived object is possessed of objecthood. However we do not know, even in the metaphor, whether the objects-as-we-know-them are the only stable concretizations or that the stability of known objects is absolute. All this, though metaphorical, is suggestive

An approach to the existence of absolute objects is outlined in the sections on the Metaphysics of Presence in Metaphysics and secondary linked articles

3.4         Systems in which mind is fundamental

…but not mind-as-we-immediately-experience-it

Examples:

Dualistic systems – mind is a fundamental category, perhaps a substance

Monistic systems – mind is the only category or substance

Solipsism – what is otherwise called the “contents-of-mind” is the only real category; regardless of the ontological status of solipsism, it seems that everything including the unknown [as unknown, as vaguely known, as inferentially known] that is known is known as the content of some mind

More generally systems in which Being and Agency are fundamental

3.5         On the authenticity of local metaphysics

There is an interpretation of the being of the individual as the fundamental ontological category. Such a metaphysics not only promotes the local metaphysics as fundamental but has the most radical interpretation of “local metaphysics.” Heidegger’s metaphysics – an ontology of being – may be seen in this way… that there is a valid way of seeing the universe that being-in-the-world is the most fundamental category; and a fundamental characteristic of being is that it can ask “what is the nature of being?”

What is the relationship between agency and being?

3.6         A Fundamental Principle of Metaphysics

The following may also be placed in Metaphysics where it would be supplemented by the Metaphysics of Presence

A possible Fundamental Principle of Metaphysics is:

The World is Equivalent to Nothing

This is not at all the same as ‘The World is Nothing,’ or ‘The World is Equal to Nothing,’ or ‘The World has its Origins in Nothing.’

In this metaphysics [see linked documents] there is ‘something’ but it is not guaranteed to be [have the characteristics of] this world. This metaphysics is ‘universal.’

There is a local metaphysics, e.g. the given, mind, matter, being, agency and sentience… these are examples not characterizations

The local and universal metaphysics, in application to this world, must mesh. What does this say about the local and universal metaphysics?

The universal metaphysics is local in that the local metaphysics is [equivalent to] ‘something.’

3.6.1        The Word ‘Nothing’ and Alternatives

Instead of “nothing,” the equivalent “nothingness” can be used. In this case the subject [nothing] and the property [nothingness] are the same. Owing to the equivalence of subject and predicate, and consequent implications for language, this section will be retained as long as this document is maintained as independent even if the content is copied to Metaphysics

Word System 4.      Nothingness

What are some alternative ideas for ‘nothing’?

chaos

emptiness

empty

non-existence [but, “then there was neither existence nor non-existence;” but, again, avoid mere word play]

nothing

no-thing

nothingness

the formlessness

undifferentiated [gray] being

void

3.6.2        Basis in the Latest Science?

It might be nice to provide a basis of the principle above in the latest science – especially modern physics. Actually, it is not so much the ‘latest’ science as enduring principles that would provide the most satisfying and secure scientific basis

The enduring principles from physics would be the conservation principles, especially of energy and momentum. It is well known that the origin of ‘something from nothing’ is consistent with the conservation of energy and momentum

However, ‘something from nothing’ is not consistent with the determinism of classical physics. The quantum mechanics, however, appears to support indeterminism. I say “appears” because there is debate on this issue – the debate being whether the indeterminism enters through the state evolution [Schrödinger equation] or the process of observation [collapse of the wave function.] In my view the indeterminism enters through, at least, state evolution – although the Schrödinger equation is deterministic, it is the evolution of a probability distribution that is described. In the ‘final’ quantum mechanics, the state evolution will also describe observation as a physical process and it is very likely that indeterminism will enter here also since the process of observation is tied in with perception [cognition] which, I have demonstrated elsewhere, must also have elements of indeterminism

I have also discussed in numerous other places the basic problem of indeterminism which is the argument that indeterminism is not a solution to the problem that determinism does not provide for the origin of new elements in the world or, in the moral case, the problem that determinism does not allow true choice by ‘moral agents.’ The supposed reason that indeterminism is unable to provide support for a metaphysics of the world or of ethics is that “pure randomness cannot make for a world with structure.” The resolution of the problem of indeterminism is discussed in Metaphysics and numerous documents. The resolution is that an indeterministic world is not a world with ‘pure randomness.’ An inspiration for the argument is from quantum mechanics and from the idea of evolution as variation plus selection from evolutionary biology. The indeterministic element provides a variation from given structure [including from nothing] and the conditions of stability provide for selection of the occasional new and stable structures

The inspiration from science for the form of the argument and the possibility of something from nothing is not necessary… but the partial foundation from science serves only to strengthen the argument

3.6.3        Basis in Metaphysical Argument

Nothing and nothingness are not simple concepts. What is pure ‘nothing?’ It would seem that pure nothing requires a deterministic constraint and is, therefore, ‘something.’ The closest real to the vacuous image of absence of existence is a minimal, ephemeral state of indeterministic ‘coming into transient existence’ of unstable entities

Occasionally, from nothingness stable structures emerge. And, occasionally, from stable structures, new stable structures emerge

Nothingness is ‘before’ cause and pattern; therefore, the original becoming includes an origin what causality and law there is. And, similarly, the evolution of being includes the evolution of law; law may, of course, remain sensibly constant for relatively vast periods of time. Also, similarly, is the possibility of destruction of all being and law

Note, here the near original confluence of word, world and idea

The metaphysical arguments show the equivalence of the world and nothingness

3.6.4        Basis in Being

Basis in being includes our being-in-the-world. That comes before judgments – about being, the world or being-in-the-world. This has been said before – existence before essence, the map is not the territory, but not only in these somewhat special and metaphysical accounts but in the common… and in science the ongoing iteration of hypothesis and testing. Basis in being includes science, metaphysics, and common experience. The meaning of the latter is not clear from the phrase – common experience. But since the world comes before judgment, the basis will emphasis the suggestive, metaphorical nature rather than an a priori, categorial, essential or necessary nature

I add that, of course, the only world we know is the known world and therefore, in alignment with Kant, we note that there is a ‘pre-conditioning’ of our judgment that make it seem, at least, that the forms our judgments are on an equal footing with the forms of the world

Here we are in the world without clear foundation – whatever that might mean – without full knowledge of the world including our being and without a clear future. We will make of it what we can. Metaphysical statements, like any statement, must be of an experimental character. There is an ideal of timeless, certain knowledge. That ideal intersects with our being cast into a world that is not completely given in requiring our thoughts, and lives to be experimental and that includes risks

Plan: Explore Words for Alternative Metaphysics

Word System 5.      Alternative Metaphysics

Example: The Word ‘Nothing’ and Alternatives

4           BEING WORDS

4.1         … essential words for basic Metaphysics

The concept of “Being Words” is to examine whether language – words and syntax – reflects the fundamental metaphysics and, if language is found lacking to consider, design and introduce theoretical [conceptual] and practical remedies. What does “language” refer to? The following shall be considered: particular languages such as English, all languages, and the concept of language, i.e. the possibilities of language

4.2         A system of Being Words

Word System 6.      Some Being Words

4.2.1        Some Words

all, some, none

existence and non-existence

is, being

not

4.2.2        Alternate Words

Commonly, we can replace “is” by “appears;” and “being” by “phenomenon”

However, see a solution to the metaphysical dilemma, below

Observe that the meanings of “appear” and “phenomenon” become inverted in some uses, e.g. where “apparent” means “true,” perhaps by way of being “apparent to anyone and everyone.”

4.2.3        Generators

Metaphysics: being, meaning and action or being, relationship and process; determinism and indeterminism

Forms: number, tense, gender

4.2.3.1         Generation

Being as actor. Action: agency: acts [on object]; agent: has agency

Being as object. Agents and knowers are objects. Not all objects have actual agency and gnosis; all objects have the elements that constitute agency and gnosis

Differentiation: indescernibles

Kinds: species

Qualities [adj.]

Relations: far, near; on, under…

Being as process

Species: running, walking

Qualities [adv.]: fast / faster, slow

Being as relationship

Meaning

Knowing

Objective relations: near, far

Being as knower. Knowledge: gnosis: knows [object]; mind: has gnosis

Objecthood, quality

Processhood, …

4.2.4        Concepts

Metaphysics: extension, duration; object – thing; relation – interaction; being – phenomena; ideas, concepts, words

4.2.5        Sources

Essays on Being, Evolution and Design, Thinkers and Actors, and other Core Essays for Journey in Being

Encyclopaedia Britannica, Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Dictionary of Philosophy

Metaphysics – Indian, Western and Primal

4.3         Some issues of use and the ontological status of objects

Above we considered a problem regarding the ontological status of objects. The problem is not new, it is Kant’s problem of objects. The problem is not whether anything exists but, rather, what constitutes the existence of an object-as-an-object? We saw that there is a possibility of absolute objects but that without some theoretical background, objects are at once real and an assignment. Further, while there is always the question of the theoretical background we saw that there are reasons to consider that the theoretical background [the Metaphysics of Presence in Metaphysics and secondary linked articles] is necessary

Does the system of some words above reflect this situation? There is also the practical concern that, despite the conceptual considerations, objects do present themselves in perception as independently existing entities with absolute existence. The following practical argument may then be made. In a world or universe where there are beings such as the life forms on earth, beings that survive and negotiate the world with some degree of success, such beings are objects/agents that as part of the conditions of negotiation participate in the local and temporal being of the world… and within that context, but not within the universal, efficiency of survival and negotiation is the intrinsic assumption of objects-as-known as absolute objects. Intrinsic assumption means something like built in to the perceptual apparatus

4.3.1        A solution to the metaphysical dilemma

Although there are famous solutions to the metaphysical dilemma [e.g. Kant, Heidegger, Wittgenstein] the ontological status of knowledge and of objects remains problematic

A practical solution is that day-to-day language would not normally carry around the metaphysical apparatus of the conceptual distinction between objectasknown and absoluteobject. Further, when considering the possibilities of language to reflect the distinction[s], it should be remembered that it is only on the assumption that the practical metaphysics is the absolute metaphysics that the basic being words such as “is” have the single absolute meaning. Otherwise “is” can have both meanings, the absolute and the asknown meaning. It may be a good thing to allow language this flexibility. Practically, language does have such flexibility – it is, perhaps, only in our attitudes and our theories that language becomes rigid or completely lacking in any mooring in reality. Thus, in day to day situations, the alternate words are not necessary; however, in the same spirit, we can posit the “alternative words” and say that the “original” words are unnecessary. In fact the label “alternative,” here, carries a metaphysical presupposition. The richness of language avoids certain metaphysical commitments without subscribing to a solution to the problem of metaphysics. This is a flexibility at more than one level that allows but does not require certain kinds of precision in metaphysics

4.4         Comment on being at play in the field of the evolution of language

The origin and evolution of language is partly conscious and partly designed. Two factors make us tend to forget or not be aware of this: we are removed from the origin of our language, English; and the polarization of everyday use and authority. In the origin, although there were likely key or focal individuals and occasions, use and creation were not as distinct as today

As a result of the modern distinction, language is regarded as given, the fact that it had an origin obscured, its tentative nature replaced by an attitude that it is absolute – even in its trivial and accidental elements

So when we consider the possibility of new words – language play, we should remember that we would not at all be the first to engage in such play; play occurs at all times but not uniformly; play may be conceptual, theoretical but it is as much playful, experimental; and playful, theoretical, experimental constructs are subject, always, to the conditions of survival. So, when playing with language in a self-conscious way, it would be good to remember that one is doing neither a great nor a trivial thing; one is a thread in the fabric of being

Plan for Being Words

Eliminate this section

To what extent are these considerations practically and conceptually reflected in language – English, other languages, all languages, the possibilities of language?

If language is found lacking, what will be a theoretical and practical course of action?

To possibly present and use in a practical and philosophical way a alternate, modified system

So that such a system will not be completely artificial, pay attention to the way in which languages originate, evolve and die

Modify the section A system of Being Words

When introducing Vision Words and the remaining documents from Words, consider conceptual and practical syntheses:

Mind words as the qualities of being; as expressing knowledge and vision

Knowledge words as expressing the variety of being

Basic words, syntax as expressing the variety of concepts for being and its possibilities

Incorporate the following important supplement

4.5         Being words are among the fundamental

Being words are among the fundamental. Not all words are of equal significance

Secondary systems are added as needed. All systems evolve with range of experience and theory. Older versions may remain as shadow systems. These are some ways in which the system of words and concepts of Journey in Being are in evolution

4.6         What is the basis of Being words?

That is, how will we generate and select the words… what are the criteria for inclusion and exclusion?

§         To begin with the obvious and the sense of intuition – subject to modification, in series and parallel, to the remaining considerations… i.e., the intuition is not fully innate but subject to education. Thus, Some Words and subsequent sections above; these, naturally, include “is,” “exist,” “real” and “being.” Intuition suggests “word,” “idea…” but these may be, alternately, listed in the systems of basic / linguistic or mind words

§         Then: the Agent-Object metaphysical system. This system will require words and words for substance, object, property, quality, change and process, interaction, effect, cause, relationship, agency, mind, sentience, awareness, cognition, perception, feeling, emotion, choice, decision, will, intention, action, execution. As an example of the level of generality desired, the main classes of property but not detailed classes or properties may be included; as an example, the main visual qualities of color, shape… but not the system of colors – violet, indigo… [shape is visual but not merely visual?]
Note that change / process lead to the notion of time; and position / place [relationship] to space

§         Other metaphysical systems

§         Systems such as Kant’s Understanding: the categories… [not taken as given, fixed or absolute]

However, concrete or detailed specification should wait upon “getting the metaphysics / ontology right.” That might, of course, never happen. However, it is allowed that any metaphysical / ontological system – actual and formal or intuitive, informal, paradigmatic – is and will be in evolution. Further, in questions of pinning down the ontological status of matter, mind, or more generally of objects, much may be gained from specifying a metaphysical framework that is flexible and not specific or concrete in nature. This leads to…

4.7         An a-material Agent metaphysics

4.7.1        Introduction

The following important observation now occurs. The reality of agency [the reality of perception is the existence of appearance] even to the professed and strict materialist [central state materialist, behaviorist, identity theorist, functionalist] – else what is it that the materialist theories are trying to explain

This reality of the agency is not questioned by the strict materialist who questions only the ontological status of agency as fundamental. There are, of course, epiphenomenalists and other anti-idealists whose value appears to be that they provoke the sharpening of thought. Given that the reality of perception is the existence of appearance and so on, the anti-idealist is not only questioning whether agent-phenomena exist but even whether there can be confusion about the issues. Further, it may be asked “what is it that the eliminativist is trying to eliminate?” He or she is not only eliminating mind and agency but, also, that there could be such ideas, concepts, debate even confused ones

Thus agency [the idea] has the following ontological status:

Reality, existence

As stated above, this is not questioned – or even questionable. What is questioned by the materialist is the primacy of the ontological status of agency. He or she is saying I do have perceptions, thoughts and feelings and these are very real but they are also – and at the same time – something else and that something else is more fundamental. It is more fundamental in the sense, according to the materialist, that it pervades and is all of existence and everything else is made up of it

4.7.2        The a-material agent metaphysics

§         Real ontological status is accorded to agency

§         Real epistemic status is accorded to objecthood [matter…] and, of course, also to agency… the accord of epistemic status to mind is analytic since the ontological status of agency is its epistemic status

§         Objects and objecthood are neither given nor denied ontological status

This is a flexible metaphysics as conceived above. The claim being made here is that nothing at all is lost by relinquishing an agent-object ontology and “retreating” to an agent ontology, nothing in the agent-object universe and knowledge system is not found or devalued in the agent universe and knowledge system. Science, especially physics, are unaffected; humanities, matters of the human spirit are not impoverished. This much is analytic. I believe it to be true, and this is synthetic, that the agent metaphysics enriches and will enrich both science and the humanities including the esoteric and the mundane

4.8         The problems of the Agent-Metaphysics

Clearly the agent-metaphysics has “work to do.”

What is it that is to be explained

The world

The metaphysical structure of the world

The explanation itself

Plan for Agent-Metaphysics words

Main

Sub-systems from concretization…

Word System 7.      Agent-Object Metaphysics

Open

5           BASIC WORDS

5.1         The concept

A minimal set of words and other language elements to express local [practical] and universal [theoretical] ontologies; and the action of an individual being living luxuriantly in its own domain and in knowing and becoming ultimate being. The concept is similar to that of being words except that being words is at a higher level of abstraction and generality while basic words is concerned with practical day-to-day detail – without being too detailed. Imagine someone entering a culture – he or she is to be taught the essentials of communication of ideas and needs without the “10,000” details that are better learned through assimilation in the day-to-day. That person would be taught the basic words

Plan for being and basic words

Eliminate this section

Mesh the systems and their metaphysics

Simplify

Some plans for basic words

Simplify

Take syntax to a higher level… introduce concepts from linguistics…

5.2         Key ideas for basic words

5.2.1        Word, concept and object

It is not meaningful to consider object, concept and word separately – here, concept includes percept and, naturally, feeling… and “object” is used in a general way to include process, quality, relationship and function. Concept is the way in which object is known – on a representational view. Or, on a presentational view, concept is object. Therefore, on the latter view it is not meaningful to consider concept and world separately. In some views word and object or word and concept are identical or equivalent; these include analytic philosophy and the concept of “mantra.” In any case, from onomatopoeia and psychology, word and object or word and concept are closely bound in human mind

5.2.2        Metaphysics

The world is not understood merely as a collection of objects; it is a whole. And the holism derives not only interaction but also from the mutuality of existence. Therefore, the meaning of a concept cannot be given without a metaphysics of a system of objects. But there is no given metaphysics that is generally agreed upon [except, see, metaphysics of presence in Metaphysics] and therefore there is an empirical element to meaning. We knew this anyway, but the empirical element in question here is essential

5.2.3        Word

Origins in communication see Kinds of Knowledge. Sign and symbol… word and pictograph

Theory: language, syntax, semantics, linguistics, semiotics

Generators: iconic elements, syllable and syllabary, alphabet

Compound word generators: word, word stem, prefix, infix, suffix

Generators: varieties of form based in metaphysics: declension, inflected forms

5.2.4        Concept and object

Object, relationship, process and the generalization to being, meaning, action

Quality – property – and number

Element and combination

Object: kind of object and specific object [noun and name]

5.3         The implementation

Everyday language is the base; then consider any metaphysics - what are the categories required to depict and describe that metaphysics - rendered in language. With regard to foundations – [1] Metaphysics, [2] Metaphysics-language or language-itself… Formalization, completeness and consistency, other meta-issues. Is there a need for depiction?

5.4         Topics and Words to be Explained

5.4.1        Metaphysics

Local metaphysics - intrinsic being

Universal metaphysics - Being, Meaning, and Action

5.4.2        Language and Metaphysics

There is an essential connection between language and metaphysics

"Language is thoroughly indeterminate, by reason of the fact that every occurrence presupposes some systematic type of environment." "A precise language must await a completed metaphysical knowledge." The words of Alfred North Whitehead, Process and Reality, 1929 express the connection between metaphysics and language and a related indeterminacy in language. Any essential incompleteness in metaphysics represents a further limit to the determinacy of language

What is metaphysics? It is knowledge of the world as world. It includes the remote but also what is so common as to remain unnoticed - seen but unrecognized; it infuses each moment, each place, each life. It is omni-present in an unquestioning being in the world

When we consider the most present and most basic elements of life - waking up in the morning, love, war, idyllic peace, a moment, an intention, the sum of a life we find, on a simple analysis that there are objects, relationships, action which includes change

Language is a way to express these possibilities. Thus being-relationship-action leads to nouns, verbs and so on. It is easy to give explanation to other parts of speech and language elements

However, it is not that simple. Is being-relation-action an adequate expression of the metaphysical possibilities and is language as conceived in its descriptive and prescriptive aspects adequate to any given metaphysical expression? And is there any need for language to completely cover metaphysical possibility? If knowledge of the world in its details and general character is in evolution, is not some flexibility in language, some under-specification a good thing?

Metaphysics is never quite right or complete. What is the "being of entities," "What is the nature of being," and "What is the nature of the question on the nature of being?" That is the spirit of Heidegger - the last question is mine. Even if we hold with Wittgenstein that it is all visible and that is all that needs to be made clear - the only thing to be explained is that there is no explanation or need for explanation, then that process in a state of incompletion

Because of common context there may be seen to be some universality in description, in discussion and in education - and that can benefit communication in the common realm but also limit exploration beyond that realm. Before grammar the question does not arise

Thus the following is seen to be true. Language is an open model for metaphysics; it is not exact and it allows for experiment and tinkering - this before syntax and its concretization, e.g., in the outline or details of the being-relationship-action model. Language continues to become refined in that process even though there is, naturally, a plateau that is common to all languages corresponding somewhat to a common stage of human being and action

There is almost no point to a merely empirical study of language - but is there such a thing as a merely empirical study? We may think that we are doing an empirical study but that is only superficial

5.4.3        Language and Logic

Varieties of linguistic expression: declarative or assertive, directive, commissive, expressive, declarative (two-way fit); the related mental attitudes; origin; organic foundation and hierarchy

Generating knowledge

Semiotic

The sentence, the proposition, the unit of meaning and use and their philosophy

5.4.3.1         Proposition

Common definitions of the proposition are given in Kinds of Knowledge – a proposition is the primary bearer of truth; the meaning of a declarative sentence or, alternatively, a declarative sentence. A canonical form for the proposition is the subject-predicate form; this may be too limiting

5.4.3.2         Propositional Attitudes

Propositional attitudes are generalizations from propositions in more than one way. First: an attitude need not count as knowledge as, say, in justified true belief; rather the propositional attitude may be one of belief, intrinsic knowledge state, action-base, intrinsic truth state and so on. Second, the form need not be that of the declarative sentence or even of proposition; it may be a visual picture of how the world is - and that may entail a basis for action, an intrinsic knowledge state... What do I mean intrinsic knowledge state? In everyday action we feel, without any necessary further reflection or analysis, without question a certain way about our pictures or propositions about the world; in day to day communication and action, for all practical purposes there is sometimes that unreflective intrinsic feeling "this is knowledge" - that is the intrinsic knowledge state. Further an attitude need have no direction of fit such as word to world and so on

5.4.4        Language

Signs, symbols and proto-language

5.4.5        Elements of Language

Phoneme, syllable, word, phrase, clause - simple, complex and compound, sentence, paragraph, stanza, verse, chapter, text; presentational form

Varieties of speech act - and types of sentence

5.4.5.1         Letter

A symbol representing a speech sound and constituting a unit of an alphabet

5.4.5.2         Alphabet

Set of symbols or characters that represent the sounds of a language. Each character in an alphabet usually represents a simple vowel, a diphthong, or a consonant. "Alphabet" sometimes includes the concept of syllabaries

5.4.5.3         Syllabary

A set of written symbols that represent the syllables of the words of a language... Writing systems that use syllabaries at least in part include Japanese, Cherokee, ancient Cretan scripts (linear A and linear B), and Indic and cuneiform systems

5.4.5.4         Phoneme

Smallest unit of speech distinguishing one word from another, e.g. the sound f distinguishes "fat" from "pat" and "bat". A phoneme may have more than one variant sound, called an allophone that has no significance

5.4.5.5         Syllable

A segment of speech that consists of a vowel, with or without one or more accompanying consonant sounds immediately preceding or following--for example, a, I, out, too, cap, snap, check. Any more precise definition of the syllable in phonetics and phonology a matter of debate

5.4.5.6         Word

A speech sound or series of speech sounds that symbolizes and communicates a meaning without being divisible into smaller units capable of independent use; or the entire set of linguistic forms produced by combining a single base with various inflectional elements without change in the part of speech elements

5.4.5.7         Phrase

A word or group of words forming a syntactic constituent with a single grammatical function e.g. an adverbial phrase

5.4.5.8         Sentence

A word, clause, or phrase or a group of clauses or phrases forming a syntactic unit which expresses an assertion, a question, a command, a wish, an exclamation, or the performance of an action, that in writing usually begins with a capital letter and concludes with appropriate end punctuation, and that in speaking is distinguished by characteristic patterns of stress, pitch, and pauses

5.4.5.9         Clause

A group of words containing a subject and predicate and functioning as a member of a complex or compound sentence

5.4.5.10     Paragraph

A subdivision of a written composition that consists of one or more sentences, deals with one point or gives the words of one speaker

5.4.5.11     Chapter

A main division of a book

5.4.5.12     Book

A treatise or literary work a major division of a treatise or literary work

5.4.5.13     Text

Something written or spoken considered as an object to be examined, explicated, or deconstructed

5.4.6        Grammar and Syntax

5.4.6.1         Grammar

Sentence construction, the way sentences are constructed; the rules of sentence construction

Generative grammar: a set of rules whose output is all and only the permissible sentences of a language

Prescriptive grammar: exposition of rules based on correct or incorrect usage

A general meaning for grammar: the elements of any science, art, or subject

Wittgenstein's use:

5.4.6.2         Syntax

The first meaning of grammar, above

The wffs [well formed formulas] of a logical system, study of the same; the rules that generate such a system

5.4.6.3         Alphabet, numerals, signs

Period

Comma

Question mark

Interjection mark

Colon

Semi-colon

End marks: paragraph, chapter, text..

5.4.7        Sentences - parts of speech

5.4.7.1         Adjective

Describing - nice day, best student

Delimiting - other years, some people

Quantifying - one dog, all things, some fruit

Adjectival - functioning as or forming an adjective phrase, clause

5.4.7.2         Adverb

Adverbial

5.4.7.3         Case

Nominative or subjective - indicating the subject of a finite verb

Objective - indicating the object of a transitive verb or possession

Possessive - indicating possession, ownership, origin

Ablative - indicating the starting point of an action

Accusative - indicating the direct object of a verb or certain prepositions

5.4.7.4         Conjugation

5.4.7.5         Conjunction

A small number of words - connectors between words, phrases, clauses or sentences. Examples: and, but, because, unless

5.4.7.6         Dangling

To occur in a sentence without a normally [expected] syntactic relation to the rest of the sentence, e.g., the word turning in "Turning the bend the mountain appeared." is dangling

5.4.7.7         Inflected forms

Nouns - plural

Verbs - past tense

Adjectives: comparative, superlative

5.4.7.8         Interjection

Words typically used in grammatical isolation to express feeling, emotion: Ouch! Oh! Hey! Ugh!

5.4.7.9         Noun

Nouns function as the subject or object in a construction - typically things [persons, places, animals...], states, qualities e.g. darkness

Proper, common

Mass, countable

Name, person, gender, number

Gerund n [LL gerundium, fr. L gerundus, gerundive of gerere to bear, carry on] (1513) 1: a verbal noun in Latin that expresses generalized or uncompleted action 2: any of several linguistic forms analogous to the Latin gerund in languages other than Latin; esp. the English verbal noun in -ing that has the function of a substantive and at the same time shows the verbal features of tense, voice, and capacity to take adverbial qualifiers and to govern objects

Complex gerundive..

5.4.7.10     Pronoun

A pronoun is one of a small group of words "used as replacements or substitutes for nouns or noun phrases mentioned in or understood from the context and having very general reference". Examples: I, you, he, she, them, this, who, what, it..

He - nominative or subjective

His - possessive

Him - subjective

5.4.7.11     Preposition

Prepositions are typically used before nouns, pronouns or other substantives to form phrases with adverbial, nominal or adjectival function

5.4.7.12     Verb

The main element of a predicate, typically expressing action, state, or a relation between two things, formally distinguished as being inflected for tense, aspect, voice, mood or agreement with the subject or object

Finite verb, transitive / intransitive verbs

Infinitive

Infinitive n (1530): a verb form normally identical in English with the first person singular that performs some functions of a noun and at the same time displays some characteristics of a verb and that is used with to (as in "I asked him to go") except with auxiliary and various other verbs (as in "no one saw him leave")

Split infinitive n (1897): an infinitive with to having a modifier between the to and the verbal (as in "to really start")

Usage The split infinitive was discovered and named in the 19th century. 19th century writers seem to have made greater use of this construction than earlier writers; the frequency of occurrence attracted the disapproving attention of grammarians, many of whom thought it to be a modern corruption. The construction had in fact been in occasional use since the 14th century; only its frequency had changed. Even though there has never been a rational basis for objecting to the split infinitive, the subject has become a fixture of folk belief about grammar. You can hardly publish a sentence containing one without hearing about it from somebody. Modern commentators know the split infinitive is not a vice, but they are loath to drop such a popular subject. They usu. say it's all right to split an infinitive in the interest of clarity. Since clarity is the usual reason for splitting, this advice means merely that you can split them whenever you need to

Participle

Participle n [ME, fr. MF, modif. of L participium, fr. particip-, particeps] (14c): a word having the characteristics of both verb and adjective; esp: an English verbal form that has the function of an adjective and at the same time shows such verbal features as tense and voice and capacity to take an object

Perfect participle n (1862): past participle [a participle that typically expresses completed action, that is traditionally one of the principal parts of the verb, and that is traditionally used in English in the formation of perfect tenses in the active voice and of all tenses in the passive voice]

Present participle n (1864): a participle that typically expresses present action in relation to the time expressed by the finite verb in its clause and that in English is formed with the suffix -ing and is used in the formation of the progressive tenses

Past participle n (1798): a participle that typically expresses completed action, that is traditionally one of the principal parts of the verb, and that is traditionally used in English in the formation of perfect tenses in the active voice and of all tenses in the passive voice

5.4.8        Semantics

Figures of speech: metaphor, simile, hyperbole

5.5         Linguistics glossary

Sources and plans for language and linguistics

5.5.1        Concepts – linguistics

Being and the Elements of Being; Metaphysics; linguistics and philosophy of language

Texts: Encyclopaedia Britannica; A Companion to the Philosophy of Language, Bob Hale and Crispin Wright, eds., 1997; The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences, Robert A. Wilson and Frank C. Keil, eds., 1999

Plans: rounding out philosophy of language and linguistics glossary is left for later

5.5.2        Thoughts – language

Long term: study languages

To talk, interact, understand

As examples for linguistics and philosophy of language

Sources for metaphysics – as medium, as generator, intrinsically in that the structure of language reflects metaphysics

Here it is objected: Human metaphysics is not metaphysics, is not the world…

Counter objection: preliminary – if I say human it is in the inclusive sense in which humans are animals, animals are alive… and not in the hierarchical sense; this almost obviates the next and main counter that, in a way, we cannot go beyond the human way: everything including criticism is human. “Obviates?” if we are one with all being why would we want to go beyond? It is only when we are separate that the need to go beyond arises…

Additional Plans for basic words

Find sources / contacts; review and work through concept-implementation-topics-sources

Plan: develop and mesh the following with being words

Word System 8.      A Set of Basic Words

This is developed in interaction with the above considerations, especially in ongoing interaction with the empirical level - use and the theoretical level - metaphysics

6           MIND WORDS

Word System 9.      Mind Words

Objects and, more generally, the elements of the world are known by their qualities and [measurable or objective] properties… or, alternatively, as phenomena

6.1         Introduction

Whereas being and basic words refer to the world, to the real, mind words refers to phenomena and qualities. The distinction is not ultimate and there is a translation: objects <-> properties. However, the emphasis is different and so the sets of words are significantly different

Mind words was originally a set of keywords for On Mind and Metaphysics and Metaphysics

Mind words is in two parts: theory and description

 

6.2         Theory: words for the study and philosophy of mind

6.2.1        Metaphysics and theory

absolute

analytic certainty

anomalous monism

anti-dualist

artifactuality

being

being-in-the-world-before-I-theorize-about-it

categories

cause

central state materialism

Chomsky's poverty of stimulus argument

cognitivism

completeness of physical explanation

concept

conjecture and refutation

datum

descriptions

dualism

epistemology

ethical

existence

explanation

folk psychology

functionalism

functionalism, computer

functionalism, machine

given

good and evil

hard problem

human

hypothesis

hypothesis  and test

idealism

identity theory, token

identity theory, type

incarnation

individuals

life

logic

mind body problem

monism

moral sense

myth

necessity

non-existence

ontology

pan-materialism

pan-psychism

paradigms

perception and propositional attitudes

philosophy

practical metaphysic of experience

presence

process

process metaphysics

proximate and ultimate

psychism

psychoanalytic theory

real

reduction

remote-yet-immediate metaphysic of existence

substance

substance ontology

supervenience

system

systems

theory

theory of mind

theory of the recognition of mind

transcendental analytic

ultimate

ultimate and proximate

understanding

universe

world

zombies

6.2.1.1         psychology

behavioral

behaviorism

cognitive

folk psychology

Freud

Helmholtz

Horney

Jung

moral sense

personality

personality factors

psychoanalytic theory

Rank

Sullivan

Wundt

6.2.2        Aspects of Mind

agency

animal mind

attitude

awareness

binding problem

experience

high level

innateness of language

intensionality

knowledge

manifestation of mind: concentration, organization and hierarchy

moral sense

object constancy

rationality

sentience

6.2.2.1         characteristics of mind

[The following characteristics of mind and, in the next section, of consciousness are each intended as partial. Additionally, some of the proposed characteristics are tentative or hypothetical in nature. Are there [groups of] characteristics that completely specify mind, consciousness? Perhaps, but note that the concepts of mind and consciousness, even though obvious in day to day life and philosophy, are, likely, in evolution. What are mind and consciousness? And what [groups of] characteristics are “best?”]

action

adaptability

agency

attitude

behavior

choice

connection of the organism to being

consciousness

design

experience

incarnation of adaptation

incarnation of adaptation

incarnation of evolution

incarnation of evolution

incarnation of nature

incarnation of nature

information

information processing

intelligence

intensionality

knowledge

life – the basic divide as aware vs. unaware or living vs. non-living

locomotion – the mind of animals and of plants; locomotion and the nervous system

meaning

meaning and reference

mental content

originality

originality

physical organization and processing

physical organization/processing

power

presence

presence of the organism in the world

presence of the universe to itself, of all its parts to one another

presence to another, to the other

society

will

6.2.2.2         characteristics of consciousness

access-consciousness [Is it a conceptual or empirical error to conflate this with phenomenal consciousness?]

adaptation

availability

awareness

awareness of awareness [second order reflection and the quality of cognition]

being

competitive advantage

condition of being

condition of existence

deep unconsciousness

discreteness of individuals, implications for

evolution

evolutionary adaptation

first person perspective

indeterminism

ineffable

intelligence

its necessity

language – language as enhancing consciousness and cognition, as essential to consciousness and cognition

locus – limited to vs. not limited to brain or body

locus in the brain or body – definite vs. dynamic vs. distributed vs. multiple in degrees of communication [zero to one]

most fundamental mode of existence and being

mystery

on-off vs. gradations

ontologically objective even though epistemically subjective

phenomenal consciousness [The primary, central meaning]

plenitude

presence

qualitative or phenomenal experience

self

self-reference, self-awareness […and the quality of cognition]

social self

unconscious – distinct vs. blending into the unconscious

6.2.2.3         functions, mental

cognition

experience

map of mind

mind of plants

modularity of mind

nervous

perception

thought

6.2.2.4         memory

associative [memory function]

mental causation

mental content

6.2.2.5         unconscious

mapping the unconscious

Searle's connection principle

6.2.2.6         dreaming

6.2.2.7         language

language and communication

meaning and reference

6.2.2.8         personality

personality factors

6.2.3        Biological Aspects

adaptations

body

brain

cellular

endocrine

genetic

immune system

localization of function

map of brain

physiology

6.2.3.1         evolution

emergence and accumulation

evolution as a simplifying principle

evolution taken literally

ontogeny

origins

6.2.4        Artificial Intelligence

combined hardware and software approaches

computation

computational theory of mind

computers

connectionism

hardware

machines

robots

software

von Neumann architectures

6.2.5        Scientific Aspects

elementary particles and interactions

experiment

mathematics

matter

molecular structures

physicalism

science

scientific

 

6.3         Description: words that are used to communicate mental function

Plan: words descriptive of mental state

Eliminate this section

Include / point to the following

knowledge

quality, properties, feeling, phenomena

vision / transformation

Use

Plan for Being Words

Agents, mind… and metaphysics

 

6.3.1        Cognition and attitude

Note that the associations cognition and attitude, feeling and experience, willing and agency are only partial. Experience, attitude and agency are the main landmarks on a modern [philosophical] map of mind

6.3.2        perceiving qualities, sensing

[Here, there is no justice to the variety of sensation – of types and qualities within a type. There is some basis for assessing completeness when a material basis for the sense is known or hypothesized. For example, vision is based on light and the physical properties of light are the combinations of frequencies and their intensities… but what of the effect of one’s emotional state upon vision – is this merely at a higher level of integration or do emotions affect the transformations in the retina… then what of tiredness, of vision fatigue – do these factors merely alter quality or do they introduce qualities of vision not otherwise experienced and again is this high/central or low/peripheral… what of transients in the physical signal…]

[Stimulus]

change

gradient

intensity

position

quality

quantity

shape

size

variety

6.3.2.1         hallucination

6.3.2.2         vision, seeing

6.3.2.2.1        intensity

dark

dim

bright

brilliant

blinding

6.3.2.2.2        color

hue or color – the colors

luminosity or brightness, amount of white

saturation or intensity of color

6.3.2.2.3        size
6.3.2.2.4        shape
6.3.2.2.5        distance

6.3.2.3         hearing

intensity

tones and combinations

6.3.2.4         smelling

[The material basis for smelling and tasting appears to be the physical state and chemical composition, and combinations. Odor stimuli can be detected at very low concentrations; olfaction is said to be 10,000 times as sensitive as taste. Since many lower animals detect chemicals in the environment with receptors in various parts of the body and do not have special apparatus – nasal cavities – for detection, many authorities refer to distance and contact chemo-sensation rather than smell and taste.]

burnt

flowery

foul

fruity

pungent

resinous

spicy

6.3.2.5         tasting

astringent

bitter

salt

sour

sweet

6.3.2.6         touch

feeling

irritation

itch

pain

pleasure

6.3.2.6.1        sense of heat
6.3.2.6.2        sense of vibration
6.3.2.6.3        sense of fluid

flowing

slime

viscous

6.3.2.6.4        sense of texture

cotton

plastic

prickly

silk

smooth/rough

soft/hard

waxy

wood

wool

6.3.2.7         proprioception

[Perception, sensation that originates within the individual or organism. Includes the kinesthetic senses.]

blink, feeling of urgency, of occurring

breathing

claustrophobia, feeling of

cough

defecation

energy, sense of

exhaustion

feeling

flatulence

lack of breath

nausea

orgasm

sneeze

suffocation

tickle

tiredness

urination

vertigo

vitality

6.3.2.7.1        Sense of space

distance

location

orientation

shape

size

volume

6.3.2.7.2        Sense of time

[as distinct from perception or inference from amount of light, position of sun]

passing

time of day

6.3.2.8         kinesthetic sense

force

exertion

6.3.2.8.1        Balance sense
6.3.2.8.2        Dynamic sense
6.3.2.8.3        Sense of motion

acceleration

change in direction

motion

speed

6.3.2.9         apperception

awareness of one’s mental states and processes

introspection

remembering

self-awareness

6.3.3        perceiving objects, perception

[The distinction between sensation and perception of objects is not absolute. In perceiving an object the different sensations are integrated. Or, perhaps, in sensing one recognizes aspects of perception or sense.]

6.3.3.1         examples

animals

boulders

building

chair

city

faces

humans

plants

rivers

sky

stones

trees

6.3.3.2         hallucination

6.3.4        conceiving, thinking

believe

creation

delusion

faith

idea

imagination

insight

introspection

judgment

paranoia

reasoning

sense and reference

thinking, images or icons, analog

thinking, symbols, digital, in language

understanding

6.4         Feeling and experience

archetypes

symbols

race conscious

6.4.1        experience

consciousness

depersonalization

dissociation

ennui

imagery

near-death

out-of-body

phenomenon

reverie

streaming consciousness

the other

vague familiarity

6.4.2        alertness

alert

awake

dreaming

drowsy

sleeping

sleepy

unconscious

vigilant

6.5         Emotion

6.5.1        simple emotions

anger

fear

happiness

joy

sorrow

6.5.2        other emotions, mental states characterized by emotionality

alienation

aliveness, vitality

centeredness

confidence

connectedness, being in contact

dejection

despair

disgust

downcast

ecstasy

envy

hate

jealousy

love

wholeness

6.5.3        mood

depressed

emotional lability

euphoria

manic

6.6         Agency

[Note that for every action, there is some corresponding feeling; a feeling could also be an experience…]

affect

behavior

communication

concentrate

control

cry

dominance

focus

giggle

grin

ideation

laugh

response

sneer

talk

write

6.6.1        willing or conation

desire

intend

6.6.1.1.1        drive

dominance

hunger

sex

6.6.2        acting

6.7         Being

awareness

power

presence

sentience

6.8         Integration and personality

6.8.1        dynamics

defense

depth

ego

id

neurosis

repression

superego

unconscious

6.8.2        neurosis

antisocial

borderline

histrionic

narcissistic

6.8.3        personality factors

introversion, extraversion

6.8.4        gestalt

 

7           KNOWLEDGE WORDS

Word System 10.  Knowledge Words: Concepts

7.1         Preliminary

Knowledge is a key to being - either as such or in potential. The answer to "What is?" and "What is possible?" is tied in to "What can I know?", "What is knowledge?", and "What is knowable?"

The idea of a set of Knowledge Words arises as a tool in answering these questions. Additionally, a carefully chosen set of words also helps define and advance the endeavor. The Words and the Ideas develop in parallel

Knowledge Words is in two parts – a conceptual part for words central to the idea of knowledge and epistemology and a practical part devoted to words used in various disciplines chosen for their interest and their usefulness in Journey in Being

Knowledge Words is part of the system of Words and can be seen as supplement to Being Words and Basic Words and mirror to Mind Words.

Some Plans for Knowledge Words

A set words is a preliminary to building up possibilities for thought in symbolic / language terms. What are additional possibilities? Concepts, word combinations - elements of metaphysics, ontology?

Sources: Evolution and Design for ideas, words, modes systematization

Plans and sources are the same or shared for Knowledge, Being and Basic Words

 

7.2         Knowledge Words of a general nature

adapt

attention - focus, background

attune

awareness - in one sense does not necessarily involve consciousness

consciousness

dream

idea

vision

7.3         Functions

The following functions -cognition and so on- are practical and not meant to be definitive

7.3.1        Cognition

believe

cognize

concept

correct, right

data

empirical

information

intuition

judgment

know

meaning

perceive

sense - 5 senses + kinesthetic..

think

true, false

7.3.2        Emotion

emote

feel

7.3.3        Motivation

Does motivation fit into a perceive-judge / know-think-act cycle? Relation between emotion of motivation? Status of motivation?

desire

intent

will

7.3.4        Intuition

intuition

mystic

prayer

yoga

7.4         Degrees of Certainty

actual

assertion

certain

conjecture

fact

guess

hunch

hypothesis

imaginary

possible

probability

real

speculation

theory

7.5         Modes of Expression and Communication

7.5.1        General communication

action as communication - action perceived is communicated and so communication

action – intentional: as action and as communication... action is [potential] communication

action – intentional, non-intentional

stance, movement

7.5.2        Action - stylized as/for communication

Affective expression of emotion - visual e.g. facial expression, auditory - vocal including tone, volume, cadence, vocalization i.e. a variety of sounds [phonemes], tactile, olfactory..

Stance, movement

7.5.3        Iconic Expression or Depiction

acting out and recreating - various motor and sensory modalities

molding [sculpting]

onomatopoeia

sketching

7.5.4        Language

elements of language: signs and symbols

speech

written

7.5.5        Para-verbal

Any of the foregoing modes

affect

cadence

quality of voice - tone and overtone, volume, rate, continuity

stance and gesture

7.5.6        Combined symbolic and iconic

General human and animal communication

Direct communication is generally multi-modal with regard to expression. And it may be questioned whether behavior is para-verbal or speech para-behavioral... or either

art

dance

drama

poetry - includes language used to evoke emotion

ritual

song and music

7.6         Specialized Knowledge Words

 

concept

explanation

justification

logic

mathematics

myth - tradition, custom

philosophy - humanities - the disciplines

proposition

religion

science - sciences

theory

truth

understanding

7.7         Innate Knowledge

Innate knowledge is more basic, prior to knowledge acquired by the individual organism. Knowledge acquired by the individual organism is ontogenetic - that is another word for knowledge acquired in the development of the organism and usually by specialized organs of cognition and perception; this kind of knowledge is what is commonly understood as knowledge and is simply referred to as knowledge or acquired knowledge. It is, however not the only kind of acquired knowledge. Innate knowledge is phylogenetic - acquired in evolution and innate to the individual organism. Is all knowledge acquired by some system?

The distinction between innate and acquired knowledge is not absolute in all ways or even in any particular way. To a degree, innate knowledge is bound into the organism. Innate knowledge may be accessible to the acquired modalities or their organs, and may be expressed. Innate and acquired knowledge may and do join together. Acquired knowledge functions on a base of innate knowledge. Acquired knowledge is free and alterable in the living of the organism. It is possessed or remembered and is expressible. Innate systems include the organs of acquisition, memory, alteration and expression

As a generalization, innate knowledge is focused in the body, unconscious, not expressed, a-linguistic or pre-linguistic. As a tendency, acquired knowledge is focused in the nervous system, conscious, expressible, iconic - language being regarded as a elaboration of iconic expression and memory. In perception and cognition what is called the background is a mesh of acquired and innate forms

To a significant degree motor, perceptual, iconic, memory, symbolic and linguistic, and expressive / communicative abilities are innate - they may however be developed; the related skills and repertoires are significantly acquired - but may be innate to some degree

Innate knowledge - what modes of expression?

7.7.1        Innate Knowledge - Human

What modes?

endocrine

immune

neural

..

dreams, freeing up due to un-censoring

relation to group, race, species, life... elements of creation

unconscious

7.7.2        Innate Knowledge - Species

genotype - genotype as expression... of what?

group function

7.7.3        Innate Knowledge - Physical, Ultimate

"laws" of nature

broken / symmetry

chemistry as expression

particle / field interaction

7.8         The Object of Knowledge

abstract

concrete

general, conceptual

inferred

instance

particular

spiritual

universal

visible, tangible vs

7.9         Relation Between Mind and World

7.9.1        How the world presents or appears in knowledge

presentationalism

representationalism

7.10     World Constitution - Relation to Mind

7.10.1    World is "made" of knowledge categories

idealism

materialism

phenomenalism

7.10.2    Realism - world exists independently of knowledge

This does not say much for materialism, idealism, phenomenalism can all be seen as forms of realism

7.10.2.1     External Realism

There is a world that is not constituted of ideas, mind but includes mind. The world is not dependent on mind for its creation or existence

behaviorism, functionalism etc

materialism

7.10.2.2     Idealistic Realisms

absolute idealism - the world is one absolute idea

all ideas are real

ante-rem - instances required

concepts are real

Platonic realism - platonic idealism

pluralistic idealisms

rebus - concepts do not require instances

the world is constituted of ideas

universals are real - vs. nominalism: universals are names

7.11     Theories of truth

7.12     Traditional

correspondence - wittgenstein's picture theory is a theory of relationships

pragmatism - truth is utility i.e. truth is the basis for good actions

verificationist: truth is verifiability

7.13     Deflationary

"The proposition that p is true if and only if p." (A)

The traditional theories accept this and some further property

The deflationary theory has an infinite axioms of the form (A)

Allows us to express attitudes to propositions that can be designated but not explicitly formulated

Implies that verification is truth, true beliefs have practical value

Problems

Requires an infinite number of axioms

Leads to liar type paradoxes

Plans for the second part of Knowledge Words

The disciplines and practical arts will be selected and the systems of words developed as needs arise

Word System 11.  Knowledge Words. Systems for the disciplines and practical arts

8           TRANSFORMATION WORDS

The related conceptual document is Experiments in Transformation of Being. The current divisions in the Experiments… are: Yoga and Vedanta  4, Meditation  5, Vision and Perception  7, Dreams  9, Journey-Quest: Wilderness  11, Dynamics of The Real and of Being

 

Word System 12.  Transformation Words. Seeing, Doing, Being and other Transformation Words

8.1         Seeing

Includes all mental functions – cognition, feeling and emotion, will, and memory

Also see Mind Words and Knowledge Words and, from Experiments in Transformation of Being, the topics: yoga  4, meditation  5, vision and perception  7, and dreams  9  11

abstraction

alienation

altered
brain structure or chemistry
mental states and process, perception, meaning…, chemical state
stimulation of senses

ambition, my, vision of

analogy

animal
mode, in, what one sees is what one knows
signs
thinking

anticipation

apperception

archetypal dreams or symbols

art
and contact
and technique of observation
and vision
as a way of heightened vision and transformation

association
spontaneous
and mindscaping
multiple and fluid

attitude, experience, agency

auras

authority

awareness, level and content of

awe

axiomatic systems as experimental

being
is not the finite sense of the self
sense of

belief and magic

brain structure or chemistry, altered

bridge

catalyst to seeing, interactions, intense, physical and mental, as

cause

cleaning, emptying of mind

cognition
® perception
+ feeling ® emotion
conception
feeling ® perception
experiments in

concentration

conception
and thought
as perception

concepts and metaphysics or world view

consciousness, centers of

conscious-unconscious dialog

contact
with the depth
with the unconscious
contact, art and

contemplation

content of awareness, mental space

context

control of imagery

cosmologies, nature

crisis sense

critical moment

cusp of transformation

dance and trance

dark

dart and sweep

decision

decrease preconception

deep sleep

deeper consciousness

defenses

defocus

depression

depth, contact with the

dhyana [“concentrated meditation”]

direct intuitive knowledge and identity with of ultimate reality, mystic vision

discoveries in the real, of limits

dissociation

dream is a multi-dimensional flow of imagery

dreams
and symbols, archetypal
as hallucinations
as transitional between deep sleep and the waking state
may be more true than “reality perception”
hyper-realistic
less vivid occur during non-rem sleep
reality ego control is asleep
thought and waking experience, like

drugs

d-state

dynamic integration of art, emotion, action

dynamics
of intense physical and mental interactions
of laws
of limits
of perception
of reality and being

earlier mode of symbolic / iconic processing

emotion

empathy

esoteric

eternity is an instant to the absolute

evolution

experience
multifaceted
multi–modality of
multiplicity of
stark and active form of

experiences in my journeys

experiential

experimental
axiomatic systems as
idealism as
mathematics as
mathematics, platonic idealism as
platonic idealism as

experiments
in cognition
minimal set of

explicit, conscious

extended experience

extreme stress as a source of vision and transformation

fact and fiction

fear

feeling ® perception

feeling-imagination

fiction and fact

final principles

finite sense of self

fixity

fleeting phenomena

fluid sense of the real

focus cycles with defocus

global metaphysics

Gñana yoga

grow, continue to, and to not let a few discoveries characterize my entire life

hallucinations

hallucinatory visions

hallucinogens

heightened
awareness
vision, motion control, art as a way of

human mode of alienation and overcoming

hypnagogic – while falling asleep

hypnopompic

iconic processing

ideal

ideas and images of the real and of being

identities of intuition and reason

identity with all things, sense of

imagine performance

immersion

imprisoned faculties of perception

in analogy to compression of geologic time

inner
place where pleasure and pain are not distant
poetry and music
whispers become voices

inspiration, inner poetry, music, voices, from

integration of reality and perception dynamics in relation to yoga, shamanism, the ideas of Freud and Jung

interpretation of my life

intuition

intuitive knowledge and identity with of ultimate reality

Jaynesian experiments

Journey, nature of the

judgment, suspended

Jung

knowledge [ana Yoga]

knowledge; and being; modes of; dimensions of; general and human

Lake
at the
what I learned at the

language, thinking without

layers of mind and self

limits, absolute / non–absolute nature of, perceiving

local metaphysics

logic

lucid
and auto-hallucination
dreaming
hallucination

magic and religion

meaning
and function of dreams
meaning, experiments in meaning, personality

memory associations including the unconscious

mental
processes, accelerating
space
states and process, perception, meaning…, chemical, altered

merging with concepts and metaphysics or world view

metaphysics
as description of all of being
as world view
global
local

mind
being and
coloring by expectations and view of the world

mindfulness

mindscaping, association and

moment, critical

motives

multi-dimensional flow of imagery

multiple voices

multiplicity
and multi–modality of experience
as/is interactive unity

mutability of being

myself, what is the entity I call

mystic
vision and transformation
vision, apperception...and science

mysticism, European and Middle Eastern

natural symbols

nature
of talent
vision
nature: immersion and navigation

norepinephrine

object relations

observation, art and technique of

observing object relations

organic whole

other

passive – active/dynamic vision and transformation

passive experience

pathologically firm sense of reality

peak concentration

perception
includes feeling, mood, emotion, self-awareness and awareness of
perception, dynamics of
perception, feeling, thought
perception, meaning, personality, body, will, action
perception, ways to effect

perception, aspects of
abstraction
anticipation
apperception
auto-hallucination
autosuggestion
communication with the unconscious
concentration
consciousness amplification
conservatism, extreme
contemplation
excessively firm sense of reality
exertion, physical, to point of alteration of mental state
extreme conservatism, rigidity
fluid sense of the real
focus
focus cycles with defocus
identity with all things, sense of
immutable as fluid
preconception
rigidity, extreme conservatism
sense of reality, excessively firm

perceptual
and being-in experience, primary
dynamics
dynamics in relation to the real
experience

personality
and meaning
and the body
dynamics

phenomena, fleeting

physical exertion to point of alteration of mental state

physiological correlates of dreams

plasticity of self

Platonic Idealism as experimental

poisons

possibilities

pre-conceptual mind

pre-individual contact with the unconscious

pre-language

primal present

principles, final

psychoanalysis and psychiatry

quest, transformation and vision

real psychological state of the individual before defenses and interpretation

reality grid

receiving and tuning

reflection, extended

reflexive

repeated dreams

sacred symbols: sacred places, rituals and texts

scanning function

seeing
quiet voices, whispers
what is known

seeing, heightened, art as a way of

self, plasticity of

self
-awareness
-observation
-observation and consciousness
-rule

sense
of others
of self, finite, infinite
of the real, fluid / firm / pathological

Shamanic vision and transformation quest

signs, animal

sleep deprivation, as a source of vision and transformation

source of all things

splitting
and psychosis
of the unities

stagnation – grow, continue to, and to not let a few discoveries characterize my entire life

stark and active form of experience

stimulants

stimulating and release

stimulation of senses, altered

stress, extreme, as a source of vision and transformation

substances – and combinations – that alter mind

suspended judgment

sweep, scan vision

symbol

symbolic experiences

symbols, sacred: sacred places, rituals and texts

synthesis

texts, sacred

thinking
without language
animal

thought
covers all aspects of mind including perception, feeling and emotion
modes of

time
stretching
being in the present is eternal
compression of, analogy to geologic time
eternity is an instant to the ultimate

transformation
and vision quest
and vision, extreme stress as a source of

ultimate

unconscious, communication with the

understanding

union
with the real
with the ultimate

unity as/is interactive multiplicity

universe

unknown

unusual / dissociative senses of self and others

Vedanta, Yoga and

vision
and transformation quest
and transformation, extreme stress as a source of
of my ambition
mystic

voices, seeing

waking
control of imagery
experience
state

what closes the heart

what I learned at the Lake

what is the entity I call myself

wilderness, vision and transformation

womb as a source of vision and transformation

work -general, specific-  as a source of vision and transformation

world = nature, society, psyche, universe

world as a personality laboratory

Yoga, Gñana

Yoga, Raja

α waves

β waves

δ waves

θ waves

8.2         Doing

Includes action, choice, building, construction, and communication

Also see Being Words and, from Experiments in Transformation of Being, the topics: yoga  4,   5vision and perception  7, 9 journey-quest 11, and dynamics of the real and of being

accelerating mental processes

action and will

action or work [Karma Yoga]

action,  experiments in

agency
and healing

alienation and overcoming

approach to realization of all being

arching from individual to ultimate being

art as a way of heightened seeing or vision and transformation

arts, physical

asana [physical postures]

behavior

biology, experiments in

breath control

change, diffusion, disintegration, plasticity of self

changing negative emotions and patterns

communication
experiments in
society and action, experiments in

computation
experiment in
theory of

creative acts

cultivation
of dreams
of dreams by “messages” to oneself
of the dynamics

dance and trance

decision

deep relaxation

define and execute a complete, minimal set of experiments

defining experiments

devotion and prayer

dialog

dream
journal
record

dynamics of creative acts

ecstatic practices

engagement, active

execute and define

experience and experiment

experiment
and theory of computation
as a stark and active form of experience
in computation

experiments
in action
in being
in biology
in cognition and action
in communication
in instrumental psychology
in meaning
in my life
in psychology
with computers
complete set of
defining
Jaynesian
local
minimal set of
world of

extreme
strenuous activity as a source of vision and transformation
stress as a source of vision and transformation

fast

feeling and behavior, of

flow, goal and

frenzy

goal and flow

Hatha Yoga

healing, agency and

hypnotist

inner vision and transformation

interpersonal dynamics

Jaynesian experiments

journey
as extended experience and perception
as inspiration that I worked out
in being

journey-quest
as immersion
as inspiration
as inspiration for life and metaphysics
as occasion for extended reflection

journey-quest: nature and process

journey-quest: wilderness

journeys to the source of all things

Karma Yoga

learning in stages

letting go

life, goals, projects

passive – active/dynamic vision and transformation

Patanjali Yoga

phases and issues of a life

physical
arts

limits
dynamics
pushing in order to find reality of
sequence of

local experiments

mantra

martial arts

mathematics, Platonic Idealism as experimental

meaning, experiments in

meditation [Raja Yoga, ]

meditation as the release of imprisoned faculties of perception

mental processes, accelerating

metaphor for life, journey-quest, as

minimal set of experiments

music/drum

my life, experiments in

mystic vision and transformation

new environments, immersion in

niyama [observances]

observances

open sky and sunlight

overcoming limits

overcoming, alienation and
exertion to point of alteration of mental state
postures

Platonic Idealism and mathematics as experimental

pranayama [breath control]

prayer

processes, accelerating mental

psychic and physical renewal

psychology, experiments in [, instrumental]

purification yama [restraint]

pushing
in order to find limits
modern knowledge to its limits to find limits

quest, journey

quests to sacred places

quieting, cleaning, emptying of mind

Raja and Hatha Yoga are both empty without the other

Raja and Karma Yoga and the Yoga of the Bhagavad-Gita

Raja Yoga

Raja Yoga – self-rule

realization
of all being, approach to
of identity with the ultimate by uncovering and bringing to consciousness the

regeneration

release, ways of, catalysts

releasing imprisoned perceptual faculties

renewal
physical
psychic

sacred circle

Samkhya

sensory deprivation

separation/immersion

sequence of limits

set of experiments
complete
minimal

Shamanic vision and transformation quest

signs
large: shinings and dullings, pressure releases
medium: rubs, nicks, scratches, gnawings and bitings, breaks and abrasions in twigs, sticks and logs
small: hairs, stone and leaf disturbances, compressions and side heading

sitting meditation

sleep deprivation, as a source of vision and transformation

spatter vision

strenuous activity as a source of vision and transformation, extreme

stress as a source of vision and transformation, extreme

study

sun dance

sweep, scan vision

T’ai Chi Ch’uan

theory of computation

tracks

trails and runs

trance, dance and

transformational roles

travel light

travels in nature

unpredictable consequences

vision, techniques of

visionary and transformational roles

vision-quest

walking meditation

ways of release; catalysts

wide-angle vision

wilderness, vision and transformation

will, action and

withdrawal

work -general, specific-  as a source of vision and transformation

work, action or [Karma Yoga]

world
as a personality laboratory
of experiments

yama

Yoga
of Bhagavad-Gita
Sutra
Gñana
Hatha
Karma
Vedanta and the Journey in Being

Zen

8.3         Being

Includes being, becoming, meaning, personality, transformation of being and body; and the dynamics of the real and of being

Also see Being Words and, from Experiments in Transformation of Being, the topic: dynamics of the real and of being

absolute
non–nature of limits
eternity is an instant to

action or work [Karma Yoga]

active/dynamic – passive

adaptability

agency
and healing

alienation

all being, accessible to every being

all being, existence and non-existence

always
at home
centered, even at the edge

animal being

animal mode, in
at the edge, despite fear one is always centered
what one sees is what one knows

animal thinking

archetypal

art
as a way of heightened seeing or vision and transformation
emotion, action

atlas of being

Atman

Atman = Brahman
of Vedanta
goal of Mysticism
in all religions
in secular experience
in Shamanic practices
other ecstatic practices

attitude or devotion [Bhakti Yoga]

awe

behavior and feeling, patterns of

being

Being

being
and mind, animal
in the world
open to depth

being
animal
atlas of
construction of
continuum of
culture and
dance of
diffusion of
direct window to
dynamics of
evolution of
experiments in
faculties or
ideas and
immersion and
modes of
mutability of
open to
sense of
story of
the principle of
ultimate

being-in
experience
-in-the-world

beings
and computers
and minds

Bhagavad-Gita

Bhakti Yoga – devotion or attitude

body, personality and the

body-dynamics

Brahman

breath control

breathing and heart rate

bridging over

caring

catalysts

cause, central

centered, always, even at the edge

central cause

Ch’an

charisma and empowerment

charismatic relations

communication, experiments in

complete set of experiments

computation, theory of

computers, beings and minds

conscious decision to “travel light.”

construction of being

contact with depth

continuum of being

crisis and release

culture and being

cusp of transformation

dance of being

death
dynamics of
reality of

depression

detachment

diffusion of being

direct transformation

discovery of limits

discreteness and continuity in being

disintegration of being

dissociation, hypnosis and

dream affects life

dynamic integration

dynamics
as bridge
as bridge between modes of knowledge and being
of being
of death
of intense physical and mental interactions
of limits
of limits and laws
of loss
of loss and death
of reality and being
of the entity
of the real
of the real and of being
of the real and of being - experiments in being… personality, meaning and the body

dynamism requires the entire range of mental

dysfunction

ecstasy

ego-control

ego-less

empowerment, charisma and

endurance
and vision
limits of

engagement, active, of whole being

entities, dynamics of

entity I call myself

eternity is an instant to the absolute

evolution

excessively firm sense of reality

exertion

existence

experience, attitude, and agency

experiential

experiment,  kinds of

experiments
 in being - dynamics of the real and of being… personality, meaning and the body
in life
in transformation of being
experiments, complete set of

faculties of mind and being

failure and success

final principles

finite existence

fixity and freedom in patterns of feeling and behavior with others – in social context

floating and swimming

flow

fluid as immutable

forgiveness

form

foundation

fragmentation

fragments in the story of being

freedom

function of perception

goal and flow

great in their prime, the branches are fragments in the story of being

grounding: metaphysics

grow, continue to, and to not let a few discoveries characterize my entire life

hard and soft

healing, agency and

heart rate, breathing and

hero

home, always at

Horizons Enterprises

human
being
mode of alienation and overcoming

hypnosis and dissociation

idealism
as experimental
platonic

identity
of the self with Brahman
with the ultimate

immediate enjoyment of open sky and sunlight

immersion
and being
in new environments, worlds, cultures, nature
in the immediate to the ultimate

immutable as fluid

in risk, I am alive

individual being, limits to

inner
music and poetry
poetry and music
vision and transformation
world

integration
of mental functions
dynamic

is

isolation

Jesus

Journey in Being

journey, to not, is death

kinds
of experiment

knowledge; and being; modes of; dimensions of; general and human

Lake, at the

language

laws
dynamics of

letting go

liberation

life
experiments in
issues of a
phases of a

limits
of endurance
to individual being
absolute / non–absolute nature of
discovery of
discovery of the nature, is through experiment
dynamics of
pushing in order to find reality of

literature

local to global

loss, dynamics of

love

mantra

map
of mind
of world
of world, use of simple local and global metaphysics

meditation
as the release of imprisoned faculties of perception
yoga, and life
in-action

mental space

metaphor for life, journey-quest, as

mind
and no–mind
being and

minds and computers

mode
animal, at the edge, despite fear, one is always centered
animal, what one sees is what one knows
human, of alienation and overcoming

modes
of being
of knowledge
of knowing-being
of process; action, dynamics, evolution
of relationship; caring, mental-function / intension, force, transfer
of thought

momentum and pace

multiplicity
interactive, as / is –identical to– unity

music
and poetry, inner
inner poetry and

mystic vision and transformation

myth

Native American tradition

nature
as potential
immersion and navigation

new environments

no-mind

non–absolute / absolute nature of limits

nurture
as the realization of specific potentials

object

open to being

openness to life, others

organic whole

overcoming and alienation

passion
passion and enjoyment

passive / active-dynamic
vision and transformation

pathologically firm sense of reality

phases and issues of a life

physical
and mental interactions
reality

physiological

places, sacred

plants

pleasure

poetry and music, inner

power

pre-individual

pre-language

present

primary

principle of being

process
applied to itself
modes of

processing

properties are not purely given

psyche and psychic space

psychological transformation

psychosis

quest
for vision
journey

rage

range of mental, the entire

real
values
dynamics of the

reality
grid
of death
excessively firm sense of

realization
of all being
of identity with the ultimate
of identity with the ultimate by uncovering and bringing to consciousness the
of self
of self in the present
of ultimate being

realm, social

receptive

reductions
cognition ® perception
emotion = feeling + cognition
feeling ® perception and feeling
will – what is it

reflexivity

relations, charismatic

relationship, modes of

re–programming

rituals, sacred

river as metaphor for life

sacred places

selection, variation and

self
knowledge
plasticity of

sense
of being and identity with all things
of others
of reality, firm, excessively
of reality, pathologically firm

sensory modalities

sequence of limits

sex

Shamanic vision and transformation quest

simulation of being

sleep
deprivation, as a source of vision and transformation
altered

social realm

societies and cultures

soft

somatic

source of all things

space, psychic

spiritual connection to life is a natural capacity

stagnation – grow, continue to, and to not let a few discoveries characterize my entire life

state
of consciousness
of mind

staying in the present

story of being

strenuous activity as a source of vision and transformation, extreme

stress as a source of vision and transformation, extreme

style of living

success and failure

surrender

swimming and floating

symbol for the primal present

symbolic sciences

symbols
– the sacred: sacred places, rituals and texts
for state of mind

synthesis

systems
of vision and transformation
axiomatic

talent

texts, sacred

theme

theory of computation

thinking
without language
animal

thought
and action
models of
modes of

tranquil or turbulent

transformation
of being
passive – active/dynamic

transition state

travel light, conscious decision to

true self

ultimate being

unconscious

union
of force
with the real
with the ultimate

unitary

universal

unusual / dissociative senses of self and others

values

variation and selection

Vedanta, Yoga and

view of the world

vision, mystic

visionary and transformational roles

waiting

waking state

wilderness, vision and transformation

wildlife

will
action
what is its reduction?

womb as a source of vision and transformation

world
= nature, society, psyche, universe

Yoga
and Vedanta
Karma
Raja

Yogi

Zen

8.4         Other

Includes texts, theory, religions, biology, simulation of being

adaptive functions

altar, being at

ambition

analogy, explanation and understanding by

archetypal

art

artistic and humanistic disciplines

assigned function

autonomic
and central nervous system

axiomatic systems

being, dimensions of

Bhagavad-Gita

biology

brain
stem
structure
structure or chemistry, altered

Buddha

Buddhism

Cartesian

centers of consciousness

central
and autonomic nervous system

computation, theory of

computers

consciousness, centers of

control, keys to

description, explanation and understanding

dimensions of being

disciplines, humanistic and artistic

dynamics
bridges over to science, philosophy and the rational, humanistic and artistic disciplines
of the [autonomic] nervous system

dynamism

Eckhart

electroencephalogram

emphasizing nature, ideas and being… including the social realm

English

Enterprises, Horizons

escapes

explanation and understanding by analogy

Freud

function
adaptive
intrinsic vs. assigned
of dreams

ground of being

hero story

history

Horizons Enterprises

humanistic and artistic disciplines

humanities

iconic

idealism, platonic

instrumental psychology

integration

Jesus

Journey-Quest, much of the material, so keen at the time of writing turned out to be on the way

Make Prayers to The Raven, Richard Nelson, 1983

mathematics

mind, aspects of, or functions

modern
institutions
vision-quest, details of a

modernism

modes and models of thought

Mohammed

mythology

nature cosmologies

nervous system, central and autonomic

neuro-physiological correlates of dreams

ontogeny and phylogeny

Patanjali

people

personality laboratory

philosophy

phylogeny and ontogeny

physical reality

pontine tegmentum

power of modernism

psychological state

psychology
instrumental

Raja and Karma Yoga and the Yoga of the Bhagavad-Gita

reality, physical

Sanskrit

sciences
and humanities
symbolic

serotonin

Shamanism

splitting and psychosis

symbolic sciences

symbols

systems, axiomatic

thought, modes and models of

transformational roles

variation and selection

vision quest, modern, details of

vocabulary

Yoga and Vedanta

Zarathustra

LATEST REVISION AND COPYRIGHT

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