JOURNEY IN BEING

ANIL MITRA

FIRST EDITION—JUNE 2003

CURRENT EDITION—September 2012

Copyright © Anil Mitra PhD, 2003—2012

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DIVISIONS

PLAN

INTRODUCTION

IDEAS

JOURNEY

RESOURCES

NOTES

CONTENTS

PLAN

INTRODUCTION

Overview

Worldview

Essential Version

Endeavor

Essential Version

Journey—Essential and Regular Versions

The Idea and Nature of a Journey

For Limited form

For Unlimited form

Sources for the Idea and its Development

Origin of the Idea of a Journey in Being

Vehicle for and Nature of the Journey

Phases

Significance

The Human Endeavor

Ideas, Thought, and The Academic Disciplines

Science | Religion

IDEAS

Being

Existence

Definition

Problems Regarding Existence

Nature of the Definition

Existence versus Being

The Charge that Existence is Trivial and Empty

Possible Emptiness and Non-Robustness of the Idea of Existence

The Problem of the Non-existent Object

Objects

Some Functions of Doubt

Meaning

Concepts

Meaning

Problem of the Non-existent Object

Experience

Definition

Examples of Experience

Nature of the Definition

Significance

Problems

Being

Definition

Nature of the Definition

Problems of Being

Similar to Existence

Robustness

Distinction from Existence

Why is there Being?

What has Being?

What has Being? Some Examples

Problem of This Conception

Significance of Being

Extension and Duration

Universe

Definition

Domains and Complements

Definitions

Results

Law

Definition

Laws Have Being

One Universe

Cause and Creation

Void

Definition

Properties

Metaphysics so far

Universe

Metaphysics

Journey

Logic

Art

Religion

Preliminary

On Religion

Science

Universal Hypothesis versus Compound Fact

Science and Metaphysics

Identities

Difference

Critique

The Inspiration

Miracles

Inspiration

Future of Science

Unlimited Form

For Limited form

Objects

The Idea

Concrete or Particular Object

The Idea

Extension of the ‘Kinds’

Abstract Object

Examples

What is an abstract object?

What Kind of ‘Entity’ is an abstract object / Where do abstract objects reside?

Unified Theory of Objects

Demonstration

Interpretation

Perfection Revisited

The Seeming Perfection of Abstract Objects

Sources of Imperfection for Abstract Objects

Implications for Nature of Logical Mathematical Truth

Some Symbolic Systems are Clearly Experimental in Intent

A Variety of Objects: Exploration

A Variety of Objects: Particular

Entity

Interaction

Process

Substance

Tropes

Ideas and Concepts

Values

A Variety of Objects: Abstract

Mathematics and Logic

Universals

Properties

Concepts and Ideas as Abstract

There are no mental objects besides concepts

Form

Value

Duality of Particularity and Abstractness

Applied Metaphysics

Inhabiting Abstract Objects

Method and Meaning

Referential Meaning

Method

Justification

Discovery

Discovery / Justification

Existential Attitude

Philosophy

Logic and Mathematics

Cosmology

Introduction

Concept of Cosmology

Significance of Cosmology

General versus Special Cosmology

General versus Physical Cosmology

General Cosmology

Method or Principle

Variety

Extension and Process

Being and Extension

Principle of Being and Process

Examples of Process

Origins. Evolutionary and Special Processes

Origins of Cosmological Systems

Dynamics and Its Origins

Entropy

Being, Space, and Time

Immanence of Extension and Duration

Patchworks of Space and Time

Signal Velocity

Multiple Times and Signal Velocities

Uniformity of the Cosmos

Circular Time

Space-time

Mind and Matter

Mind, Matter and the Universal Metaphysics

Consciousness and Awareness

What entities are conscious?

Moral Implication

Objection from Materialism

The Universal Case

Consciousness and Evolution

Freedom and Determinism

Some Considerations of Mind and Matter in The Universal Case

How Pervasive is Mind?

Attributes

Special Metaphysics and Cosmology

Metaphysics and Science—a Program

Relationships

Sources in Science

Implications for Science

Death

What is Death?

Secular Thought

The Metaphysics

What Can we Learn From Death?

In Secularism

Under The Metaphysics

Power

The Concept and Nature of Power

Universe as Ultimate; Inheritance

On God

God as Ultimate Power

God as Highest Principle

On the Concept of a Personal God

On Personal Gods

A God that is Abstract and Personal

God as Open

‘God’ as Destiny

…as Discovery

…as Conceptual Exploration Awaiting Realization

There are no True Atheists; no True Believers; no true Agnostics

Mediate Powers

Organism and Psyche

Society, Person, Institution

Nature

Ultimate Power

Ultimate Powers

Access

Special Metaphysics and Powers

World

On Explanation and Method

Concept of Explanation

Related Concepts

Explanation and Theory

Explanatory Ideal

Explanatory Systems and Explanatory Triads

Phenomena

Elements

Explanatory Framework

Explanatory Framework—Universal and Particular

Element and Framework: Arbitrariness of the Distinction

Method

Science

Immersion and Participation

What is to be explained?

Nature

Matter

Phenomena

Explanatory Framework

Elements

The Local Cosmology

Phenomena

Elements

Explanatory Framework or Theory

Origins of the Local Cosmology

Life and Organism

Phenomena

Elements

Theory

What is life?

Human Being

Human Organism

Psyche

Human World

Human Being and Psyche

Freedom and Constraint

Triad

Phenomena: The Categories of Intuition

Elements

Framework of Explanation

Timelines and origin of the higher elements

Human Being and Psyche

Primary Goal

Balance Between Freedom and Constraint

Mind and Matter

Parameters

Structure and Processing in Human Mind

Is Human Nature Complex andor Ineffable?

Society

Freedom and Structure

Phenomena

Elements

Social Sciences

Economics, Political Science, and Political Philosophy

Framework of Structure and Change

Human Endeavor—Essential Version

Modes

Ideas and Their Incompleteness

Action and Its Completeness

Vehicles and Agents of Endeavor

Tradition

Modern Tradition and Its Limits

A Future for the Human Endeavor

Openness

Human Endeavor—Longer Version

Ideation and Action as Modes of the Human Endeavor

Vehicles and Agents of the Endeavor

The Tradition of Endeavor

Tradition

The Modern Canon

Secularism

Limits of Secularism

Religious Fundamentalism and its Limits

Limits of the Modern Canon—A Summary

The Future of the Tradition of Ideas and Action

JOURNEY

Introduction

Outline of Contents

Ideals

Powers

Dimensions

Being

Ultimate

Mediate

Process

Ultimate

Mediate

Essential Powers

Mediate

Individual

Society (group)

Material and Technological

Process

Ultimate

Knowledge of the Ultimate

Ultimate Being

Icon

Aeternitas as Such

Ways

Ways

Traditional

Approaches

Eclectic and Experimental

Comment on Received Ways

Practice and Action

Progress

Dynamics

Catalysts—Enhancing and Inducing Factors

Types of state

Enhancing or Inducing Factors

Magic

What is Magic?

Magic and Transformation

Awareness of Death, Crisis Sense

Sensitivity

Places and Place, Include the Sacred

Ritual, Include the Sacred

Acting and Drama

What is Written, Include the Sacred

Charismatic Transformation. Emphasize Sacred Charismatic Transformation

Action

Experiments

Principles and Planning

Ideation—A Program

The Metaphysics

Scientific Method

Science

Art and Related Endeavors

Religion

Journey

Expression and Communication

Narrative Form

Writing

Speaking

Networking

Publication

Learning

Phase of Being—Transformation

Psyche, Spirit, Body / Being

Emphasis

Practice and Action

Catalytic Practice and Action

Self, Culture, Society and Charismatic Action

Self

Charisma

Action

Nature and Catalytic Practice

What is Nature?

Action

Universal

Special Phase

Organic-Mechanical Being

Modes of Being and Process

Range

Modes of Mimesis

Design and Development

Social Being

RESOURCES

Stories

Special Issues

Sources

Glossary

Index

NOTES

 

A NARRATIVE OF A JOURNEY IN BEING

PLAN

Absorbed to other documents

INTRODUCTION

Overview

‘Journey in Being’ is a conceptual and experimental exploration of being1 and its transformations. This essay is an account of that exploration

The word ‘being’ has had a variety of uses. Central to many uses is a neutrality toward the kinds of thing in the world. A study of being asks not only what is the nature of things in the world but what things are there in the world… and how may such things be known. This neutrality may be empowering. However it is not a reason to avoid commitment. Neutrality is neutral to itself; without one another neutrality and commitment are empty

There is some region in space and time2 where being realizes the highest of all its actual forms

Is there a highest form—one or more? What might the term ‘highest’ mean? In the essay, it is demonstrated that there are no limits to the extension, duration, variety, magnitude, and quality of being in the Universe. What are the limits to particular beings? If the Universe has no limits, limitlessness must be conferred on all elements3 and individuals

This is the basis of a metaphysics4 that is demonstrated and developed in the essay. The metaphysics has intrinsic interest. The metaphysics lies at the center of a worldview; they provide foundation for the further study, exploration, and transformation of being. It is therefore important that we should have confidence in the metaphysics

Though demonstrated, the assertions regarding limitlessness of the Universe raise a number of issues that must be resolved before the metaphysics can be accepted. The main issues are (a) What is the meaning of the assertion of limitlessness? (b) The assertion appears to contradict science and common experience. This apparent contradiction requires resolution. Considerable thought and space in the essay has been devoted to raising and resolving these and other issues

Addressing issues and objections has a further positive function. In this essay it enables development of the metaphysics as a powerful tool to understand and negotiate the world. Resolution of potential conflict with science (and other aspects of the traditions) enables metaphysics and tradition as functionally complementary rather than conflictual. Attention to detail is crucial. Traditional metaphysical systems have sought to understand the Universe in entirety. Here metaphysical knowledge has been sought where possible. Empowerment and integration with science is consequent to this ‘modest’ approach

Consequences of the metaphysics include

The Universe has Identity and manifestation in acute and diffuse phases. There are also non-manifest phases. However, there is continuity of Identity across non-manifest phases

Individual beings have limits that are normally regarded as absolute but that are in fact merely improbable5. In approach to the Identity of the Universe normal limits are overcome. In limited form realization is an endless process of approach and retraction or dissolution. The process is seen as a Journey in Being

In unlimited form individual beings assume the Identity of the Universe

The being with whom we are most familiar is human being. In an inclusive sense human being includes the levels of ‘matter’, ‘life’, ‘mind’ and all that I can know and experience and in this sense, interest in human being is not restrictive. An individual is so familiar with her or himself that ‘familiarity’ is inadequate to describe the acquaintance. The individual has not just knowledge but also the means and framework of knowing. However, this framework and other regions of the unconscious are not directly known. This is a source of the opacity of beings to themselves. Beginning with a neutral conception of being provides a framework that makes some working through this opacity when it is of interest and side-stepping where it is merely diversionary

Vehicles for study, exploration, and transformation for human being include individuals as well as groups and culture. I hesitate to use the term ‘civilization’ to refer to the most inclusive level but that is a term that I shall use provisionally. At its least inclusive level, civilization will refer to human being as a unit engaged in its highest process; which of course may be conscious and explicit and otherwise. At this level, civilization is the human endeavor

However, interest in this essay is not limited to human being (a) because of the interest in being in general and (b) out of an interest in reaching locally and universally to other being and beings. This therefore includes life on earth and potentially being across the Universe

A matrix of being / beings in common endeavor6 across the Universe shall also be called ‘civilization’. Communication will not be ever fully conscious and explicit. I like to draw analogy with Island chains in an ocean; there is simultaneous isolation and connection; the connection is submerged today but explicit over geologic time. Civilization is all endeavor and its outcome

The modes of the endeavor are ideas and action. Ideas include knowledge, intention, choice, comparison of expectation with outcome, and learning. An idea is a form of action but in their normal form, ideas are incomplete forms of action. For completion, ideas require action whose outcomes include transformation of being

The contents of this narrative are as follows

The first division is called Ideas. Its content is the metaphysics—its setup, demonstration, development; and its elaboration and application to a range of tradition in the human and greater endeavor

The second division is named Journey.  This division lays out an approach to realization. It develops and describes a program that includes Ideas and Action (action emphasizes experiments in transformation of Being). The division founds and describes ideals, ways, and action toward the ideals for individuals and for civilization; and it sets up and describes a system of experiments-in-process toward the ideals7. The approach includes a mesh of the ideas developed in the narrative with tradition, experience, and imaginative and critical reflection

A supplement to the main divisions is a set of Resources for the text and the process or journey that it narrates

I will now introduce the essay in greater detail. One set of motivations the motivations to the ‘journey’ comes from the human endeavor (more generally the endeavor of Being). However, discussion of ‘journey’ and ‘endeavor’ are dependent on the metaphysics or worldview. Understanding of the narrative will be limited and confused without appreciation of the worldview

These considerations have determined the choice and order of topics in the remainder of the Introduction—Worldview, Endeavor, and Journey

Worldview

Essential Version

The Universe has no Limits—this ‘Fundamental Principle of Being’8 is demonstrated in the narrative

The core of the worldview is a metaphysics, demonstrated in the narrative to follow from FP and to be unique9. From FP, the metaphysics is appropriately named The Universal Metaphysics and from uniqueness, it may be called, simply, the metaphysics

The place of the metaphysics in this narrative—in order to understand this narrative and what it reveals for the human endeavor and why the standard modern views of that endeavor are immensely limited, it is necessary to understand the metaphysics—i.e., what it says, its demonstration, and its implications

Meaning of FP—there is no Limit to the extension, duration, and variety of being in the Universe. Illustration—that a cosmos has a particular configuration is not a Limit: it must have some configuration. Implication—an example—there are cosmoses, varieties of physical law without Limit against a Limitless transient background

Doubt—apparent contradiction with science and experience. Resolution—theories are fits to data and experience results from local adaptation: their local validity is expected; in domains distant in extension, duration, and phenomenal kinds they have no purchase. FP requires science and experience in their regions of validity; its consistency outside those regions is trivial

Significant implications of FP—The Universe goes through manifest and non-manifest phases; the Universe has Identity in acute, diffuse, and non-manifest phases, over which there is continuity or ‘soul’. Except conditions of coexistence, every part and individual of the Universe inherits its Limitlessness and Identity. In the ultimate, the individual has this realization as Aeternitas, i.e. outside extension-duration. Doubt—human Limits. ResponseFP has been demonstrated. Interpretation—from the metaphysics, except logical impossible, what think impossible is but highly improbable and we call this ‘Normal impossibility’

Journey in Being—all individuals realize the Universe in all its phases, especially the phase of acute Identity and manifestation; while in Limited form, realization is given as endless process in extension, duration, and variety and magnitude of Being and summit, each precursor to dissolution… This realization is given; it requires transformation of Being not limited to ideas (in the ‘lower’ meaning of ‘idea’); however, ideas are the place of appreciation and effectiveness in realization

Appendix—criticisms of the metaphysics—The following includes criticism of metaphysics in general as well as the metaphysics of this narrative (1) It is not even clear what metaphysics is. Response—Sources of this lack of clarity andor indefiniteness are (a) An original idea of metaphysics as knowledge and study of things as they are (being as being etc) was challenged in the modern period as impossible on account of the contribution from mind to knowledge which, the argument goes, cannot be eliminated. This contribution of the mind ranges from distortion to complete absence of knowledge of things beyond experience. (Note what we do know is that the contribution is always there but we do not know that its magnitude may never be zero; the goal of metaphysics then is to discover such cases if they exist and that is an essential part of the approach of the present narrative. Note also that precision regarding all things is a modern endeavor, that Plato’s investigations of being are famously in process) (b) Metaphysics therefore came to designate, tentatively, a variety of alternate activities, e.g. metaphysics as metaphysic of experience or as the study of abstract objects (which are putatively regarded as distinct from concrete or particular objects in a number of ways, e.g. that they are not ‘things’ or ‘processes of things’ or ‘interactions among things’, that they are not causal, and that they do not reside in space-time, and that it is not clear where they reside; in this narrative, however, we find that these apparently fundamental marks of distinction break down and that, contrary to modern opinion, there is no essential distinction between abstract and concrete objects). In this situation it is naturally unclear whether any single and coherent activity is or even will emerge as a commonly acknowledged conception of metaphysics. In such situations it lies outside the bound of use to appropriate10 a term and say, e.g., ‘this is metaphysics’. However, within this bound, one may say—and for reasons given below I do say—that an original conception of metaphysics as study of things as they are has meaning and may be—and is—restituted, developed, and demonstrated as an immensely powerful and broad discipline (2) All valid knowledge must be based in experience. Response—The preliminary development of Chapter Being is abstraction from experience of elements of the universe that are—shown to be—beyond projective distortion (3) Metaphysics via such abstraction must be primitive. Response—It is but even what has been and may be concluded is surprising in depth and detail. Further, this abstraction is but the beginning of the development (4) Metaphysics in its present conception is dependent on interpretation and induction or interpolation. Response—The development of Chapter Universe is deduced from the development in Being and, in fact, introduces a conception of Logic that is an ideal of extant conceptions of logic (5) This metaphysics, too, must be primitive. Response—In fact it is a founded metaphysics that is shown to be a non substance and non-relative foundation11 showing that substance as foundation is neither possible nor necessary nor desirable; the metaphysics is one of immense breadth—it captures all being in its conceptual system; it reveals the Universe as ultimate (the Universe has no limits) (6) All metaphysics is essentially speculative. Response—This is true of classical and idealist systems—perhaps of all such systems; however, as seen above, the metaphysics is not speculative12 (7) All metaphysics is abstract and remote. Response—This is true of some metaphysical systems. The concept of abstraction used in the development of the metaphysics, however, reveals direct and perfect knowledge of universal elements or aspects of Being beyond distortion. These elements are marked by their general character but are not abstract. They form a framework for more detailed metaphysical as well as practical knowledge. (8) There is mistrust in the ‘grand’ systems of the past on account of their conceptual failure and the failure of political-economic systems based on them. Response—The metaphysics is not an imposed system of ideas; logically its structure and what system there is emerges from primitives already noted; and its development was incremental—trials of extant as well as experimental ideas and paradigms and the result may be called a ‘non-paradigm paradigm’ (9) Analytic philosophy emphasizes careful piecemeal analysis while postmodern thought insists on the priority of ‘local narratives13. Response—These sentiments make sense in the modern era and therefore any development that goes against them should address their concerns. Before I address the concerns I will note that the concerns are not necessary consequences of a study of the history of thought but are inductions—‘historical necessity’ whatever its force generally cannot be true necessity but is at most powerful induction (we know this but tend to forget it when espousing our own programs and ideologies). The concerns therefore should be cautionary rather than prohibitive; the require to be considered and addressed rather than revered and obeyed. As far as rigor goes, I need note no more than I what is already remarked in foregoing and subsequent remarks on the foundation of the metaphysics. However, the concern is also with the excesses of past overweening systems. Particularly, the analysts have issue with inattention to careful detail that results in careless development devoid of real reference. The present metaphysics does indeed attend to experience and, in the end, only to experience; therefore it is to a significant degree a framework regarding which there is immense room for careful development of detail. Postmodern concerns are many—grand systems are prescriptions for failure; what is needed is local narratives which will be more effective and return power to its roots in people. The response to the postmodern concerns has similarities with the response to analytic concerns. As a framework, it is required to be completed by action; and it is required that such action may be suggested in advance but requires participation, immersion, and correction from experience. As a framework, there is no prescription for any given or even new mode of political-economic action; and it may frame local initiatives. Significantly, it is in the nature of the metaphysics to be non-insistent on any mode or prescription for thought or action for, first, it sees every element of being at the center and, second, any persuasion that it may have is, in fact and in terms of the metaphysics itself, not in some extra-narrative exhortation but lies in the ideas themselves (10) There is no direct, perfect and detailed knowledge of the Universe. Response—This is probably true; however, insofar as it is direct, the metaphysics is a framework and its conceptual structure is to be locally and developmentally filled in with experience including science and experiments in being and becoming (11) There are so many competing systems of metaphysics. Response—All other (valid) systems are equivalent to the metaphysics or part of it14 (12) There are doubts about the proof of the metaphysics. Response—Contradiction with experience, reflective common sense, logic, science, and the tradition have been eliminated. Still doubt remains. Alternate demonstration and interpretation gives confidence but essential doubt, i.e. doubt that appears hard to eliminate, remains. Thus, over and above its intrinsic character as a metaphysics of action, the metaphysics becomes an action principle, and action in and including this light is metaphysical action; and this situation may be seen even as positive for doubt occasions humanity in the adoption of an positive (e.g. not nihilist) existential stance toward being and openness (13) Metaphysics is a theoretical activity of the uninvolved intellectual. Response—The present metaphysics is not so and illustrates metaphysics as prior to all other action in its grounded-ness; it has origins in experience and action and it aims inherently and not just practically at action (for it requires action for its completion)

Endeavor15

Essential Version

Modes of endeavor—Ideas and Action are the modes of Human Endeavor

Action. Ideas—knowledge of world, esp. alternate possible behaviors and probable outcomes, value, choice, intention, execution (doing or physical action) regarding select behavior, comparison of expectation with outcome, modification of knowledge and action, in sustained commitment

Ideation is a form of action. Ideas are a source of action and efficiency; they are the place of enjoyment

On completeness of Ideas. For Limited form, ideas require action for completion. In unlimited form, idea and action merge as one

Vehicles and Agents of Endeavor—Individual and psyche, groups, societies, cultures, and civilization and their simulations and emulations. As locus of psyche and agency, the individual is primary

Tradition—the cumulative human endeavor, esp. culture of idea-action, from origins to today. Includes entire modern range of ideas and action—science, art, literature, humanities, philosophy, and religion; and existential, political, economic, and individual action

Modern tradition. There is no single standard but, simply, we may identify two canons—Secularism and Humanism grounded in a worldview rather from science, with human value as ultimate and Fundamentalism and Religion with divine value as ultimate. Of course, many moderns have no explicit adherence

Limits of Endeavor in Modern Times. Secularism and religion have positive and negative values but here focus is on the limits of their metaphysical frameworks. Religious metaphysics may be deep—even if often trivial and caricatured—maps of psyche but as maps of the Universe, even when cleaned as much as possible without loss of essence, their probability is at most remote. The limits of the default secular map of the Universe, i.e. scientific-physicalism, is seen above; it has no purchase in the far regions, not even an estimate of the extent of these regions. Secularism edges religion in realism; religion edges secularism in openness to the Universe if only in caricature. However, in light of the metaphysics these limits fall and new conceptions of science and religion open

A Future for the Human Endeavor in Ideas and Action. In the narrative we see metaphysics and science on a continuum and as complementary: metaphysics frames, science details. The metaphysics reveals a Limitless Universe and that the individual inherits this Limitlessness; the individual realizes All Being as Aeternitas. In Limited form, realization is process without Limit in extension, duration, variety, magnitude, dissolution; metaphysical action, a join of metaphysics and action, a journey in being, is a vehicle for this ultimate endeavor of realization whose ground is our being, this world, this and every present time

Openness. The narrative develops these ideas. However, commitment—especially at outset where it is prejudicial—to ideology is recipe for failure and limitation; the approach is and should be that of emergence in experience for ever openness without commitment or judgment results in effete disconnection from the world. For civilization the metaphysical action of the narrative provides the ultimate framework. Of course, some particulars are developed in elaboration and application. The final part of the narrative details an individual and shared journey of process and realization

Journey—Essential and Regular Versions

The Idea and Nature of a Journey

For Limited form

For contingently Limited form realization is (a sense of) destiny—an endless journey without limit on variety, extent, and duration, summits and their magnitudes (and subsequent dissolution); ideas are efficient and the place of enjoyment; for Limited form, realization is realization of permanence and Limitlessness across impermanence and limited being—destiny is peak and dissolution of civilization in the Universe

Openness (a) To realization as emergent—immanent rather than the imposed intelligence, e.g., of some interpretations of Marxism and Capitalism; neutral to a priori and prejudicial commitment but open to commitment that emerges in experience (b) To the meaning, i.e., sense and reference, and nature of destiny—i.e., what is Destiny?

An implication of Limitlessness of Being—realization is neither return nor the Omega Point of some systems of ‘eschatology’

For Unlimited form

For Unlimited form, realization is Aeternitas; in Aeternitas, it is impermanence nestled in permanence, Limited form nestled in Unlimited form

Sources for the Idea and its Development

External—World, Civilization, Tradition (É today, science…)

Individual16—Endeavor, experience, reflection17, experiments

Ideas—Unique, ultimate, Universal Metaphysics demonstrated in the narrative: The Universe is ultimate18 whose consequences include that of inheritance of this ultimate, i.e. realization as Aeternitas for all forms which, and in Limited form, metaphysical action, a join of metaphysics and action, whose ground is in this present world, our being, and is a journey as endless process in extension, duration, and variety…summits without Limit in variety-magnitude, each precursor to dissolution

Origin of the Idea of a Journey in Being

From the metaphysics—as above

Origin of the idea of a Journey—the multiplicity of paths, experiences and its modes in learning-society-nature, sources, halts and restarts, worldviews and paradigms leading to the present form of this process, essential incompleteness of ideas and completion only in action, led me to think in terms of a journey

Use of the idea of Being—as conceived here, ultimate in neutrality and consequently pivotal in demonstration and demonstration of the metaphysics… and as container for the journey

Vehicle for and Nature of the Journey

Individual and Civilization—A framework and way of action in the present, toward the ultimate

Phases

Universal—Ideas and Realization (transformation of Being)

Ground—our world, of individual and civilization—Organic-Mechanical and Social

Significance

The Human Endeavor

Human Being and society: culture including language, knowledge; science and religion; agency and exploration, civilization and destiny, variety has greater significance than depth; place of human being and our world in the Universe; essential incompleteness in certainty is occasion for a positive existential attitude to openness of being

Ideas, Thought, and The Academic Disciplines

Redefinition of the system of disciplines and its completion and ultimate extension in depth; applied study as the intersection of the metaphysics, tradition, and experience. Framework for foundation of the major disciplines; and immense intersectional implications including details of the disciplines to be worked out

Science | Religion

Science—science as universal hypothesis, test and application, re-hypothesis as needed is better reinterpreted as a sequence of facts—the theories in their domains of validity as compound facts; and since final knowledge is probably unavailable to Limited forms this view of science will be supplemented by participation-immersion, i.e. science will be realized in Being rather than only in Ideas

Religion—the religions do not define the idea of Religion; the metaphysics opens up a place for an ultimate discipline that is not in the union of the traditional disciplines even though it frames them; this discipline may be called metaphysics of action | metaphysical action | Religion; and in this conception Religion will be the use of all dimensions of Being by individual, group, and civilization in the search for and realization of All Being

IDEAS

Ideas include percepts, concepts, knowledge, choice, intention, a role in action, comparison of outcome with intention, and learning. Ideas are a form of action and lie on a continuum with action. In their limited form, ideas are an incomplete form of action

In the development of the ideas we find that methods emerge in interaction with content. We find that there is no final a priori. The appearance of the a priori depends on the fact that forms of method, e.g. as already built into language, normally lie outside explicit knowledge; and in the fact that we are already adapted, e.g. in evolution, to our environments. In the development the treatment of method is careful but mention may be casual. The careful considerations are collected together in a separate discussions—especially in  Method and Meaning—method which is further reconsidered with regard to care and rigor

Being

Existence

Definition

To Exist is to be; whatever is there Exists

Problems Regarding Existence

1.      The definition refers to the so far undefined ‘to be’

2.      It does not take into account the (e.g. scholastic) distinction: ‘Existence is the mode of being which consists in interaction with other things’ and ‘Being as being-in-itself’; thus Spinoza distinguished being ‘in itself’ and ‘in another’. This is only a beginning to the subtleties. The possible distinction requires a response; one emerges below. However, a preliminary observation ought to concern the validity of the distinction. Surely, there is a distinction between ‘in itself’ and ‘projectively known’—but again, perhaps not (the distinction, too, is projectively known)

3.      The idea of Existence says nothing—it makes no distinctions—and is therefore trivial and empty

4.      Does anything exist; proof that is non-robust in the sense that it does not show richness of existence

5.      Problem of the Non-existent object

Now take up the objections

Nature of the Definition

The meaning of ‘to be’ is inherent in use; we are habituated to seeking definition of a concept in terms of other, presumably more fundamental, concepts. Since this must either go on forever or come to an end at an undefined concept we therefore tend to think that definition is after all not possible but what we may do is elucidate

An alternate approach is to consider that some ‘objects’ of our world are so clear and transparent that we do not need to define them in terms of other concepts. We can point to them—‘to Exist is to be there’ (perhaps with examples); this has been called ostensive definition. An objection to ostensive definition is that pointing to something is pointing to our projection (i.e. all things of which we may talk lie at the intersection of projection and be-ing). However, consider that if nothing existed the reader would not be reading these words; there would not even be the illusion of reading. Thus, via abstraction, there is in fact at least one (very large) instance of pure and perfect (ostensive) definition; i.e. naming of the given. Whether we can make the idea of ‘existence’ more robust and of a wider even universal range of application will emerge. For now we may assert

Existence has been defined by abstracting from the projective given what is beyond projective distortion and by naming this perfect given ‘existence’

Existence versus Being

The foregoing shows a generic case where the putative distinction is empty

What of the universal case? It will emerge in Chapter Universe that the distinction is universally empty

The Charge that Existence is Trivial and Empty

If the charge is intended to imply that ‘existence’ is not a concept, the charge is empty

If it is intended to imply that we should not talk of existence then it is absurd on more than one count. First, we do not in advance know what may emerge from consideration of the trivial; a common approach, one that has many forms, to establishing ideas of significance is reduction to the obvious and the trivial. Second, we refer to existence in common parlance with great frequency; and while reflective thought should not take common parlance as definitive it should also recognize that there may be more than common significance to common parlance

It will emerge that existence (and Being) are ideas of immense power; and that this power is located to a significant degree in the neutrality of the ideas; and that a complementary source of the power is located in willingness to explore the world (Universe) under this neutral perspective; (in this regard, existence and Being will be immensely empowering to philosophy and metaphysics as the unknown variable is immensely empowering in elementary algebra)

Possible Emptiness and Non-Robustness of the Idea of Existence

The ‘emptiness’ objection has been addressed. Robustness will emerge below, first in considering Experience and then, later, in Chapter Universe

The Problem of the Non-existent Object

This problem will be stated and resolved after discussion of Meaning, below. The resolution will show the immense power of proper understanding of the idea of meaning and analysis of meaning of terms—and the nature of such analysis

Objects

It is now appropriate to provide a preliminary definition—An Object is that which Exists; we have already suggested and will later find and provide foundation for the division into pure and projective objects (and a distinction of the projective as epistemic and Valuational)

Some Functions of Doubt

Dual of Certainty

Leads to method; co-emergence of method and content; initial non-uniformity of method (1) Bars global epistemic critiques (E.g. all knowledge is projective—there is truth to this—as implying that all knowledge is marred by projection; human knowledge begins in Experience as implying that all knowledge must arise in Experience—this ignores deduction from Experience; it also ignores the restriction of induction to its experiential base—and that Experience is the only source of knowing—this ignores adaptation. Note the foregoing aspects of criticism taken together bar metaphysics. Since they are shown partial, their exception allows metaphysics. Further, on account of deduction, they do not rule out even Universal Metaphysics. Universe demonstrates just such a metaphysics which turns out to be a unique and ultimate metaphysics that reveals the Universe as ultimate—in senses to be explained) (2) Initial non-uniformity allows restitution of uniformity at least in some senses

Clarification of Ideas

Meaning

Concepts

Unit of meaning

Mental content—concepts are objects—icon including associated sign, e.g. word; referential type: intended reference, necessity of icon

Primacy of referential concepts (in this narrative); all concepts may be studied in their object aspect

Projection; perfect concept-objects, existence as example (non-robust so far); practical or good enough reference

Meaning

Sense and reference, i.e. concept-object

A source of confusion: one sign, two symbols

Meaning, context, use; source of stability; no final meaning or authority; fluidity vs. stability

Indefiniteness of context, especially in absence of a completed metaphysics (context)

Meaning in this narrative

Problem of the Non-existent Object

Consider ‘unicorns do not Exist’. Given the assertion (there are no unicorns), to what can it refer?

Consider ‘tigers Exist’. If ‘tiger’ is a word and only a word ‘t-i-g-e-r’ it can refer to nothing ‘tigers Exist’ is neither true nor false since it has no meaning

‘Tigers Exist’ derives meaning from the iconic part of the concept of ‘tiger’ and its association with the word ‘tiger’. Then, ‘tigers Exist’ means something, the meaning is obvious, and we can verify its truth (status)

‘Unicorn’ is a concept, a word-icon association; the source of the icon is myth, picture, etc. I.e., we have a picture of a ‘unicorn’ as something like a horse but with a ‘corn’. Thus ‘unicorns do not Exist’ has meaning; it means that nothing in the world corresponds to the concept of ‘unicorn’. And if it is true that nothing corresponds to the concept then it is likewise true that Unicorns do not Exist19

Experience

Definition

Experience is subjective awareness

Examples of Experience

Experience occurs in sensation, feeling, perception, emotion, thought, memory, and in their structures. I.e. Experience is not essentially affective or qualitative

Nature of the Definition

Analysis of meaning; abstraction of what lies beyond projective distortion (of which error is a trivial, e.g. instrumental, case); meaning already empirical; naming of the primitive given

Significance

Human Theater

Problems

Is there Experience? Yes, affirm naming of the given; robustness of Experience

Is there anything but Experience? Yes, there is a rich Real (External) world; robustness of Existence and Being (more to follow in metaphysics)

Being

Definition

Nature of the Definition

Above § of same name

Neutral

Problems of Being

Similar to Existence

Triviality—see existence

Is there Being—see existence, experience

Robustness

See discussions of experience (robustness of Experience and Real World)

Distinction from Existence

I.e., Being as Being-in-itself vs. Existence as being-in-relation (e.g., as concept but concept is as we will see, relation)

Here, from analysis of meaning, the distinction breaks down; later, in metaphysics, even if different in sense, it will be seen to be identical in reference

Why is there Being?

As explained in the Introduction, anticipated as trivial

What has Being?

Therefore, from the same anticipation, the real problem

What has Being? Some Examples

Experience, Concepts, Objects, Existence, and Being (yes, Being has Being)

Problem of This Conception

Question of Depth. Response: container for depth, allows emergence

Significance of Being

Neutral (unlike matter, mind) therefore powerful; allows emergence

Container for significance

Extension and Duration

Sameness and Distinction

Sameness, Identity, and Duration

Distinction, Other, and Extension

Suggests immanence of and relative character of extension and duration but possibility of local as if absolute character

Where structure is insufficient to allow identity (or perception), extension and duration have no being (measure, perception)

Duality of sameness-distinction results in incomplete separation of extension-duration

Universe

Definition

All Being

The Universe has Being

Domains and Complements

Definitions

Results

Law

On laws versus Laws

Definition

Laws Have Being

One Universe

No Being outside the Universe; therefore contains all Concepts, Experience, Objects, Domains, Laws

I.e. Universe, Concepts, Experience, Domains, Laws, Objects are all Objects

Cause and Creation

Universe has neither cause nor creation (nor creator)

One domain may be implicated in the cause of another

There is no God the creator; there may be gods; there may be God the greatest power / principle / being; which may be external to us or inclusive of us; and we may realize this ‘God’ without violating the ideas of Being and Universe

Void

Definition

Complement of Universe

Properties

Contains no Object or Law

If there is a Void, it is not a violation so far of logic, that there be multiple Voids

It is not yet clear that the Void Exists. We cannot yet say ‘The Void has Being’. Tentative demonstration of the Existence of the Void is given in Chapter Universe

Metaphysics so far

From Introduction ‘Metaphysics is the study / knowledge of things as they are’

In the modern and recent periods serious doubt regarding metaphysics in this and similar conceptions has arisen. The crux of the doubt is that metaphysics cannot be based in Experience because of projection

However, we have seen above that an at least elementary metaphysics does arise from Experience via abstraction of some elements of Experience immune to projective contribution

In what follows this elementary beginning is extended to a unique, ultimate, and universal metaphysics

Universe

Metaphysics

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Journey

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Logic

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Art

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Religion

Preliminary

The religions are more than their metaphysics taken literally; cosmology is allegory; their attempt at cosmology reflects concern with cosmology beyond scientific-physical cosmology; and though these cosmologies are literally absurd / improbable they are still attempts at general cosmologies of Being that we in the modern time under the harsh glare of reductionist science and the blasé of economic well Being have given up; religions provide stories and morals; and social bonding. However, we are all too familiar with the negative side of the traditional as well as modern attempts at religion

It remains that the religions do not define Religion. The analysis of Religion is only in part an empirical and psychological endeavor. It is also a metaphysical endeavor; and metaphysics shows that when the human disciplines and endeavors are taken in their totality there is nothing in their common forms that corresponds to full metaphysical action or action in light of the metaphysics

On Religion

Accordingly, Religion is the endeavor of individuals and groups that employs (deploys) all dimensions of Being in the realization of All Being (interpreted positively); Religion may be a group endeavor with accumulated learning and charismatic example

Religion is metaphysical action; and as such, part of Logic

Science

Universal Hypothesis versus Compound Fact

Though UH and CF are roughly equivalent, FP favors CF

Science and Metaphysics

Identities

Empirical-Conceptual

Difference

Regarding the empirical science favors detail and action; metaphysics, the reverse, ‘loses’ detail, gains precision and universality

Critique

Regarded as universal, FP sets limits

The criticisms of reductionism, positivism, progress… are critiques of attitudes

The Inspiration

Miracles

Inspiration

Science inspires and learns from the metaphysics

Future of Science

Unlimited Form

There seems to be no need for science or any becoming, e.g. coming to know

For Limited form

Discovery is—and therefore relative to the Universe and from FP, must be—an endless journey…

Discovery requires becoming—participation and immersion (perhaps emulation in limited contexts)

Objects

The Idea

The metaphysically perfect object

Extension to the projective object; practical and Valuational cases and perfection

Concrete or Particular Object

The Idea

The things of this world, e.g. material, causal, reside in time and space

Extension of the ‘Kinds’

Entity, Process, Relationship

Abstract Object

Examples

Objects of mathematics, e.g. number, set

Properties

Universals

Values?

What is an abstract object?

Abstracts aspects of particular objects? Described symbolically rather than empirically (concepts over percepts)

Not in time or space; non-causal

What Kind of ‘Entity’ is an abstract object / Where do abstract objects reside?

They have been said to be ‘mental’

They reside in an Ideal or Platonic world of perfect forms—a suggestion due to Plato and other idealists

Unified Theory of Objects

Demonstration

From FP, all referential—and Logical—Concepts have Objects in the one Universe

I.e., abstract and concept objects alike reside in the one Universe

Interpretation

Abstract objects are not non-temporal or non-causal; their temporality and causality has, insofar as they are effectively non temporal / causal, been omitted in abstraction

Abstract objects reside in the one Universe

Both kinds are conceptual-perceptual; the particular are rooted in the empirical; the abstract are rooted in the symbolic

The ‘history’ of objects reveals that the abstraction of an object may change: number begins as empirical particular; it is abstracted; it enters a semi-empirical domain with computation… value begins in psyche as a tendencies, in ethics it is abstracted, but ethics requires application

Perfection Revisited

The Seeming Perfection of Abstract Objects

Source—symbolic definition

Exceptions—mixed objects, e.g. value

Sources of Imperfection for Abstract Objects

Empirical aspect

Limitations of Symbolic Systems—inconsistency, and from Gödel—incompleteness

Useful symbolic systems do not necessarily satisfy Logic

Implications for Nature of Logical Mathematical Truth

Synthetic, empirical

Even when regarded symbolic (a) symbols have objects therefore the above (b) symbols are objects and Logic / mathematics are empirical over these (except ‘trivial’ cases)

Some Symbolic Systems are Clearly Experimental in Intent

Value, Judgment

A Variety of Objects: Exploration

The categories of intuition, e.g. in Journey in being-detail

A Variety of Objects: Particular

Entity

Interaction

Process

Substance

Tropes

…as instances of properties

Ideas and Concepts

…in their instantiations

Values

A value imperative is a tendency based in feeling andor judgment that affects what is held desirable and choices regarding actions and ends

A value imperative does not determine what is held desirable or choices because multiple imperatives may be present

An ethics is a system that determines or partially determines desirability and choice

A theory of ethics (meta-ethics) is a theory of the nature of ethics and how to formulate ethics. A rational ethics argues for some supreme value or small set of values that are held or argued fundamental and the basis for ethics

Regardless whether there is a rational ethics, actual values remain experimental

Universal Metaphysics suggests realization of ultimate identity is an absolute value but not to the exclusion of immediate values

A Variety of Objects: Abstract

Mathematics and Logic

Universals

Properties

Concepts and Ideas as Abstract

No Platonic World (from the Principle of Being)

As collections of instantiations

There are no mental objects besides concepts

Form

Value

Values as concepts

Values as ideational tendencies

Duality of Particularity and Abstractness

Note the cross-over that obtains even apart from considerations of the unified theory of objects

Generalize and exemplify

Applied Metaphysics

‘Applied Metaphysics’ is the name for the extension via practical and Valuational criteria to all useful knowledge (knowledge of—empirical, knowledge that—conceptual; but not particularly know-how)

The pure gives illumination to, gives guidance and ground to, and nurtures the extended

The extended provides example and inspiration to the pure

Every context has its Limits; which we may or may not ‘achieve’

In some contexts the ‘Limit’ is that of Logic; the prime example is of course the metaphysics

Other examples concern the treatment of space-time-being and mind-matter of Chapter Cosmology

Generally, common experience and science lie in the realm of contexts that have extra-Logical Limits (these are the only true Limits)

As for Science, Applied Metaphysics (which is another name for science appropriately extended) incorporates (will incorporate) action, i.e. participation and immersion

Inhabiting Abstract Objects

We already do this for some Objects

An immense region remains open for Discovery and Becoming

Method and Meaning

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The object of knowledge is the Object; which we know by Ideas or Concepts

Ideas are incomplete action; complete action is that of the whole being

Referential Meaning

Here ‘meaning’ and ‘Concept’ generally refer to referential meaning and referential concepts

A referential Concept is one that has form / intent of reference

Concepts are simple and compound sign-icons (a sign is an object that stands for reference but which by itself is devoid of icon)

Reference requires icon; pure signs have no intrinsic referential nature

Meaning lies in Concepts and their Objects, i.e. in intension and extension, in sense and reference

Non-referential meaning can be brought under referential meaning to the extent that non-referential Concepts (which are Objects in themselves) can be recognized as Objects

Meaning obtains in contexts where it is stabilized by use; contexts change; and there is no one context; contexts are myriad; but all contexts are in the One Universe

Meaning therefore has stability and fluidity in balance; fluidity includes new meaning which is required inasmuch as new contexts are available; for Limited form, FP requires ever-newness; even for Limited form, the metaphysics implicitly encompasses all potential meaning

Meaning incorporates Experience; it is empirical; it may be actively empirical in all endeavors and contexts; some endeavors emphasize the actively empirical; in all endeavors, meaning is also and essentially empirical

Method is inherent in meaning

In the broad sense and activity of it, meaning includes method

Concept and Object are equally of the world

Therefore, method and content emerge together

We have already seen this in ‘examples’: the method of pure Experience in Chapter Being, of its abstraction to Logic in Chapter Universe; and in the extensions of pure-abstract meaning to practical-Valuational meaning of Applied Metaphysics

A principle is that knowing is an Object; here content is method

There is no option; the Universe is All Being; method lies in it

The sense of a priori method is due to its remoteness—conceptually in ‘Ideational Space’ and practically in time and human adaptation

Meaning lies in interaction with participation (use) and immersion (becoming, essential transformation of Being)

Method

Justification

Analysis of meaning; abstraction of what lies beyond projective distortion (of which error is a trivial, e.g. instrumental, case); meaning already empirical; naming of the primitive given

Essential approaches to demonstration of metaphysical knowledge established implicitly in so far in Chapter Being—analysis of meaning which already contains the empirical (Experience), abstraction of what is beyond projective distortion (of which error is a trivial, e.g. instrumental, case), and naming the resulting given; this via abstraction also to Logic

The foregoing is justification; the way included discovery

In the Applied Case, method also requires discovery even though it is suppressed in the traditional presentations of it

Discovery

Discovery includes imagination, metaphor, suggestion, comparison with the world

Discovery and justification work together in interaction and each in being suffused in the other

A traditional view is that discovery finds, justification ‘validates’

The ways of discovery include neutrality, emergence; this applied reflexively require timely commitment and judgment that a conceptual system applies; and which is an example of reflex, i.e., self-application expanded to cross application; horizontal: across concepts and percepts; vertical: concepts as objects…; note the artificiality despite utility of the horizontal-vertical distinction

Discovery / Justification

In some accounts fully separate

From multiple perspectives here seen as incompletely separate (not a new thought)—

In pure metaphysics, elements of discovery are justification; not because they are discovery; i.e., this is seen as manifest after or during the fact

Hypothesis as fact over a domain

In Logic and mathematics—no absolute certainty

Existential Attitude

Should we hesitate to act where we have incomplete knowledge—of necessity or contingently? The answer is obviously ‘No’. The question is relevant because there is an implicit intellectual sentiment that suggest the answer ‘Yes’

There is no absolute certainty regarding the Universe; there is residual doubt regarding the metaphysics

There is uncertainty about certainty / uncertainty: we do not know how certain is the metaphysics or the sum of our knowing

This may be seen as good. It is challenge calling for action and risk. The metaphysics, even if uncertain, illuminates or may illuminate our knowledge of and action in the Universe

An existential attitude that emerges—appropriate doubt and faith toward action and risk as the attitude that optimizes—at least perhaps only makes better—outcomes and realizations

Philosophy

In its emergence, modern philosophy separated from science. The maturation of science was partly responsible for the separation

Philosophy includes metaphysics. After science and metaphysics (and logic) what is left in philosophy?

There must be some discipline that knows no borders. This I call philosophy—a first stab at definition

There is a range of endeavors which differs according to the philosophical culture, e.g. ‘analytic’, ‘continental’, ‘eastern’, ‘feminist’, ‘African’… and we find under philosophy the philosophy of various disciplines including, even though it seems to not be a prominent name ‘philosophy of philosophy’

Philosophy is in a sense ‘study of what is left over after all the special disciplines are subtracted out’

Defining philosophy as default, ‘what is left over’, is obviously too broad (philosophy is not art even if it exemplifies art in some writing) and vague (all we can do is list what is studied)

How, then, may philosophy be characterized

Perhaps by its approach

Unlike art for example, the central ‘language’ of philosophy is language (supplemented of course by other ‘languages’ e.g. logic)

And the central approach therefore should be analysis of language and its Objects. Generalize this somewhat to Analysis of meaning (concepts and their Objects)

This is still perhaps too broad. Analysis of the question ‘What is a table?’ hardly characterizes philosophy (analysis of the question may of course lead to philosophical and linguistic insight)

What are the values of philosophy?

They are the most general concerns—What is in the Universe? How do / may we know this? (We may add ‘What should we do / how should we live’ but these concerns may be subsumed under ‘What is in the Universe?’

This is still a start for the various cultures in philosophy (‘analytic’, ‘feminist’…) each take some special portion of the Universe for study / as its tools (tools are in the Universe)

Philosophy itself, does not recognize these distinctions

It is as it was in the beginning even though in proliferation of knowledge it has practical retractions; and in proliferation of philosophical cultures it emphasizes certain topics

In the end, travelers to the borders may return home

Logic and Mathematics

Let us say, for purposes of discussion, that logic is analysis of the structure of valid thought; ‘validity’ requires the inclusion of ‘criticism’ and the assertion regarding logic is equivalent to logic is analysis and criticism of thought

Certain aspects of logic can be studied as formal systems. These are primarily deductive where, given, premises, the conclusions follow. The slack in non-deductive systems does not allow them to be studied as definite formal systems (except that non-deductive systems may, under appropriate restrictions as deductive; and the slack then lies in assertions rather than arguments

The formal systems can then be studied as mathematical systems. This study is ‘mathematical logic’. Mathematical logic is part of mathematics as content and method

But what is mathematics?

Let us say for purposes of discussion that mathematics is the study of ‘abstract objects’ including quantity and structure. Structure is broad enough to include geometry including space-time geometries; which includes change; and functions and therefore analysis (in mathematics this includes, especially, calculus)

Why these and not other structures (these are typical rather than definitive)? First, of course, ‘these’ are significant structures of our world (as emergent in our history of knowledge). And, second, these are amenable to study (again, as emergent)

What makes them significant is in part the (emergent and wide) immanence of the structures in the world. What makes them amenable is their specific amenability to representational study: diagrammatic, intuitive, and symbolic. Of these the symbolic stands out (intuition is important of course, first, as intuition of form and, second, as intuition of symbol)

What is the distinction between mathematics and logic? It is that logic is container and mathematics specializes by positing postulates / axioms specific to the field. In the philosophy of mathematics called ‘Logicism’ asserts that mathematics is reducible to logic and is a branch of it. Formalism opposes this (special axioms are required); Intuitionism stands outside it; however, Gödel’s Platonic Intuitionism is parallel to it

Now Logic is the requirement on Concepts of referential form andor intent to have reference (under FP). Under this, logic and mathematics become the symbolic / formal / intuitive aspects of Logic amenable to Finite Forms of Being

This is a beginning

Cosmology

Introduction

Concept of Cosmology

(General) cosmology is study of variety and kinds of Being; entity, change, interaction; their extension and duration

From the Universal Metaphysics, far greater in variety, extension, and duration than modern physical cosmology

Significance of Cosmology

In illuminating the variety in the Universe, General Cosmology provides a large scale map for (a) Future of / any journey in being via Identity and through ‘death’ and (b) any physical cosmology any physical cosmology

General versus Special Cosmology

Special cosmology is study of special kinds. The term commonly refers to special kinds from myth, religion, theology presented without proper metaphysical foundation

General versus Physical Cosmology

Study of distribution, origins, and dynamics of space-time-matter/radiation of our cosmos

In modern science and secular thought, often equated with cosmology

General Cosmology

Method or Principle

1.      The metaphysics and its methods. The following form is pertinent. The Universe—Being over all extension and duration—is the Object of Logic

Alternative forms—The Universe has no Limits. The Universe is absolutely indeterministic (which requires structure and note that determinism does not require structure or allow novel structure)

Consequences—There is no limit on the variety, extension, duration of Being. Within Logic all Expression has reference (provided it has or can be interpreted as having referential form; this includes science, art, literature…)

2.      Theory of Objects

3.      Experience (science, exploration…) for raw concepts. Universalization of the raw concepts (as far as possible and necessary via the metaphysics and its methods)

4.      The categories of intuition—an approach to exploration of variety

Variety

The cosmological systems in the Universe are Limitless with regard to number and form. In particular the variety of laws of physical type is without Limit

If matter is understood in a limited sense, it is inadequate as ‘substance’. This point is elaborated below in Mind and Matter

The cosmological systems occur against a transient background which in turn may be seen against a Void background; thus there is no Universal Law; Laws are patterns; Patterns have intuitive and formal continuations but there is no necessity to such continuations; we may think of Logic as Universal Law but we have seen that Logic is not a Law but constraint on description arising from freedom of description to form, e.g., contradiction

The Universe has acute and diffuse phases of Identity and manifestation; there are phases of non-manifestation across which Identity has continuities (the label ‘soul’ is not inappropriate but may have invalid connotations)

Except conditions of coexistence every element of the Universe—Domains, cosmoses, individuals—inherit the Identity and limitlessness of the Universe

In their Limited forms this realization must be an endless process (a journey)

Every element of Being may be associated with a Void; this Void may ‘function’ as guide, creator, and annihilator; any system, even the element itself may be seen as having this function

Every element of Being—atom, individual, cosmos—has ghost elements whose interactions may escape notice at ‘times’ but on unlimited time become large in their effects

Except violations of Logic, every idea is realized; this extends to logics, mathematics, science, and the entire range of art—insofar as these harbor no contra-Logical elements (and insofar as they are at least implicitly of referential type); the only fiction is the Logical fiction

Except for contra-Logical content every scripture is realized; if a contra-Logical scripture or any collection of Ideas is separated into different parts, each satisfying Logic, each part is realized. This give little support to non-robust depictions of the world; and it gives no support for the literal realization in any given world including this world

Extension and Process

Being and Extension

No ultimate atoms. From PB: every atom is a cosmos and every cosmos an atom

Principle of Being and Process

Examples of Process

The processes of this section are ‘special’; they lack necessity; the goal is to show their likelihood; it is not clear that the ‘mechanism of likelihood’ is universal

Origins. Evolutionary and Special Processes

No special process or mechanism is necessary under the Universal Metaphysics

However, Normal mechanisms (adaptation via variation and selection) are far more likely to obtain for systems (cosmological) to obtain

Origins of Cosmological Systems

From the Void; no mechanism required; however some kind of adaptation / self-selection is likely. E.g. the ideas of Lee Smolin

From the Universe in a manifest phase: the above, enhanced by influence from the manifest Universe at large or special Domains in particular

Dynamics and Its Origins

Requirements of stability affect possible forms (dimensionality) and dynamics. Conservation laws of dynamics are stability requirements20

Entropy

Given energy conservation, dissipation is far more likely than the reverse. However, absent energy conservation or under extreme fields (e.g. gravitation) reverse dissipation is normally more likely

Dissipation is stabilizing

Given Limitlessness of the Universe, in particular unlimited duration and probabilistic aspects of dissipation are not probable. Under locality they may be and often are more likely

Entropy is a measure of disorder. Dissipation (and heating) therefore results in increase in entropy. At higher temperatures there are more states; therefore a given dissipation results in entropy rise that is less at higher temperatures21. This is the foundation of entropic limits to energy conversion which is also stabilizing. Under regimes in which the entropy law does not hold, these limits need not hold

Being, Space, and Time

In discussing the ‘reality’ of space and time we must confront phrases like ‘time is not real’. The real question is not whether space and time are real or not but what they really are and what is the status of the significance that we attribute to them

There is a parallel to such questions in the question of geo versus heliocentrism. We can describe the solar system in geocentric terms; however such description would be much more complicate than the heliocentric description. In this case, at least, the deciding factor is not truth per se but which is the most effective mode of description. However, this response is not devoid of truth considerations. In proceeding from geocentric to heliocentric description to beyond we are moving from local to universal modes of description

Immanence of Extension and Duration

Since there is nothing outside Being and the Universe extension and duration are immanent and therefore relative; this is the constitution of space and time; there may of course be local as if absolute space and time, e.g., when one Domain is embedded in another

Patchworks of Space and Time

We saw in Chapter Being that sameness (identity) is required for duration (time) to have meaning and, secondly, for difference over identities or extension (space). Ability to perceive sameness and difference is necessary for perception of space and time. Sufficient regularity to permit clocks and rulers is necessary for measurement. Such regularity must extend over more than points

In general therefore space and time appear as patchworks

Signal Velocity

It is not a fundamental law that nothing can exceed the ‘speed of light’; rather, the velocity of light is a fundamental property of material interactions in this cosmos; it is the speed at which interactions propagate and therefore there is nothing to go faster, nothing to accelerate another object to a greater speed: an object traveling faster than light outstrips any accelerating influence

Multiple Times and Signal Velocities

May result from multiple modes of matter in coexistence

Uniformity of the Cosmos

Our cosmos is homogeneous and isotropic to within very fine limits on large scales. Why?

Why is there one fundamental signal velocity (speed of light)

Why, allowing, for effect of gravitation are clocks and rulers apparently the same everywhere in the cosmos

Why do all electrons etc have the same properties

Why are the physical laws uniform over the cosmos (given uniformity of laws and homogeneity with regard to space, there results conservation of momentum; time invariance yields conservation of energy; isotropy results in conservation of angular momentum)

An explanation of all these begins in all matter-radiation being in communication in the early cosmos. This would not obtain but for an inflationary early cosmos

Presumably there is some connection among uniformity of law, homogeneity etc, and stability

Circular Time

Since the Universe is without Limit, universal circular time is ruled out by Logic

Local experience of circular time requires ‘mechanical’ circular time in combination with Identity that transcends it

Space-time

Though different, their interwoven character arises from sameness being implicated in duration and extension

Mind and Matter

In this section, we derive general notions of ‘mind’ and ‘matter’ for Being in general

The derivation is by analogy from our experience with human / animal mind and matter. However care is employed to avoid limiting the derivation to the particular case

Conclusions are drawn for consciousness, freedom and determinism, cosmological systems (Domains) that have more than one mode of matter, degree to which mind pervades Being, and attributes of Being

Topics regarding embodiment of mind in human being deferred to Chapter World22

Mind, Matter and the Universal Metaphysics

We saw that Experience constitutes the theater of our Being. It is not everything and—at least superficially—not even everything mental but it is fundamental in that (1) It is the workplace of our designs and hopes (even though their sources are not entirely in experience) (2) Experience place and part source and search for intrinsic significance (machine or zombie versions of us that replicated only our behavior but not our inner life, if at all possible, would derive any significance from other Beings with Experience)

However, that does not get to the center of the nature of Experience

Of course, Experience is so close to / at center that it is indefinable in terms of ‘something else’. That is not quite true; we may of course formally define it in terms of something else but in doing so we would lose the essence of Experience (I could say Experience is consciousness or awareness and so on but I would be providing, not definition, but alternative names for Experience or regions of Experience). Thus regarding getting to the crux, Experience is indefinable in terms of something else. That does not mean it is indefinable. It is so given and so primal that we need not define it; however to make sure that we all talking about the same ‘thing’ we give examples and supplement them by talking around Experience. From the point of view of definition in terms of something else, definition of Experience is not required; Experience is given and it is sufficient to begin by pointing it out and once we have gotten to the place where we know that we are talking of the same ‘thing’ we then name it: Experience

One way to describe Experience is to begin with the question ‘What is our most intimate experience of the world? Perhaps the most intimate experience is in moment to moment sensations of what is immediate in the world. Alternatively it is perhaps bodily sensations, not just warmth and so on but the particular warmth I feel at a particular location in my body at a specific moment. In this way of talking Experience is Experience-of (something) and intimacy is, roughly, closeness. In another way of talking Experience is Experience-in-itself. In this way of talking I have gone from what is close to the center; it is ‘more intimate than intimate’. It is the place where the objectively remote and the objectively close are, when in Experience, equally at center

Experience has a dual quality as ‘of’ and as ‘in-itself’

Experience is the central aspect of the mental. How that picture is to be filled out—and an answer to the question to what extent is our Experience of Experience definitive—will emerge

What is Experience? From the ‘in-itself’ perspective, no further explanation is needed. As Experience-of, it is Experience of something. What of ‘pure’ Experience? Pure Experience seems to contradict the claim that Experience is Experience-of. A single pure point, i.e. void of structure, is logically incapable of intrinsic configuration and therefore of Experience. However, there are no absolute points of Being for every atom a cosmos. Therefore ‘pure’ Experience, when it occurs, is Experience-of that is internal to the organism. All Experience is Experience-of

We now see that Experience is the result of interaction. More precisely it is dually ‘in itself’ and result. Experience in a being—e.g. an organism—is (a function of) change in the being due to the effect of another being (or an ‘internal’ change in one part of the being due to another part). Pure, i.e. entirely internal, Experience is Logically possible; however, FP requires that it sometimes connect with the world. Representation, depictive or adaptive-pragmatic, of the world (which includes the organism) may obtain over and above primitive Experience; normally, this is a result of structuring-layering that has origin in adaptive phylogenetic change. However, again, on account of ‘every atom a cosmos’ there is no Experience that is absolutely primitive

Even though in principle all Experience-of-X, since it is something other than X, has a projective aspect, it does not follow that perfect depiction / representation does not occur. We have seen that it does occur in abstraction. There is a variety of competing theories of truth / knowledge; under the problem of projection some of these revert to ‘indirect’ conception / justification of knowledge, e.g. hypothesis-deduction-correction and utilitarian. Perhaps these indirect epistemologies may be placed under a collective label—‘pragmatism’. At root there is a difficulty distinguishing hypothesis-deduction from the utilitarian; and we have seen earlier that there are perfect Objects. These observations point to a concern with any epistemology that asserts uniformity of the nature of and criteria for knowledge. The analyses here have shown that different criteria are initially appropriate and, that we can to some extent according certain additional but still appropriate and immanent criteria, bring all knowledge under the idea of the perfect Object

Via adaptation Experience has different degrees of tie-in or binding to the world as representation; these define a continuum whose extreme points are experienced as perception and pure Experience. Here ‘perception’ is used in a general sense and includes body perception or feeling associated with the body including muscle tension / relaxation, the kinesthetic sense, and pain; ‘external’ perception corresponds to perception of environment in the standard sensory modes (the famous five—sight, sound, taste, smell, and touch—are not quite complete for the feeling of warmth is not the same as the feeling of brushing against something; also note the continuity of internal versus external exemplified by touch which is close to ‘internal’ sensation). Similarly pure Experience is cognitive-emotive and includes freedom of concept formation. Because of integration / integrability pure Experience and perception are always ready for interaction, e.g. in scanning in both modes: Experience ® seeking perception and perception ® Experiential reaction (fear, happiness…)

In other words we can think Being-in-itself as matter or ‘first order Being’ and Being-in-relation or ‘second order Being’ as including Experience. Is there any compelling reason that all Being-in-relation should be Experience, i.e. is there any compelling reason to accept pan-Experientialism23? FP requires potential but not actual pan-Experientialism. The alternatives to actual pan-Experientialism are that the lowest instance of Experience has an arbitrary character or lies in the arrangements of the (relative) elements. However, if the origin of Experience in arrangements then given the unlimited extension of cosmos as atom to the large and atom as cosmos to the small, the ‘arrangement’ idea is random. The only alternative to randomness of the lowest instance of the lowest instance of Experience is universality of Experience

However from the idea of equivalence of the concepts of atom and cosmos, there is no final distinction between mind and matter

If we allow the generalized meaning of Experience implied by the discussion then Experience is pervasive. It is not implied that elementary particles have Experiences like ours but that what they do have lies in the same category as Experience (just as their material nature lies in the same category of all first order being including the complex objects of our world). We have more than one center of Experience. They are not in perfect communication. One of them, our central consciousness, is our primary Experience of Experience. Unconscious and autonomic processes are also Experiential. However their communication with (central) consciousness is tenuous—and variable—and even though the communication is tenuous it too is Experiential. There are two sources of the unconsciousness of the unconscious. Firstly, it is not as bright and perhaps not as focal or articulated as central consciousness (which includes that its ‘language’ may be different, e.g.—as a suggestion—it may be something like / remnant of pre and early linguistic consciousness). Secondly, its communication with central consciousness is, as already noted, tenuous (the second ‘source’ of the unconsciousness of the unconsciousness may be a facet of the first)

Consciousness and Awareness

In addition to understanding consciousness and the unconscious, the foregoing also explains other well cataloged phenomena of consciousness. The explanations that follow illustrate the ideas established above for some significant cases. The illustrations do not confirm the main ideas but they do give support and, importantly, they help build a catalog of corroborative and non non-corroborative and relevant phenomena

Central consciousness is our primary Experience of Experience. That is, while consciousness does not seem to require consciousness of consciousness, the latter is necessary to be aware of, cultivate, and speak of consciousness. We may conclude (1) Language is not necessary for consciousness but it heightens it and its cultivation (2) While central consciousness forms a continuum (or near continuum) from high to zero intensity, the experience of a cut-off above zero (the on-off phenomenon of consciousness) is due to non awareness of low degrees of consciousness

There are reports of subjects whose corpus callosum—the structure that facilitates inter-hemispheric communication—is severed. Such subjects when given a stimulus to the eye on one side, respond with appropriate behavior but, when asked, report being unaware of the stimulus and of intending the behavior; the response is normal but the absence of awareness and intention is not. This has been explained by introducing ‘a-consciousness’ or action-consciousness that is a functional counterpart of but ‘conscious consciousness’. This is obviously a misuse of terminology (apparently motivated by a desire to explain away consciousness). The explanation itself is potentially a good one; not all actions are consciously intended; the particular phenomenon is special case that arises in non-normal subjects. However an explanation that in the non-normal subject peripheral Experience has been cut of from central / primary Experience (‘consciousness’) is a better explanation for it need not invoke unexplained ‘unaware awareness’

Most people can recall incidents in which a conscious solution appears suddenly, without apparent precursor, in consciousness. That the unconscious is not literally unconscious but not in bright communication with bright consciousness explains the phenomenon as well as that it is often experienced as a surprise or a ‘sudden’ intuition or insight

What entities are conscious?

Robots of simple design and structure have displayed behaviors. The following conclusions have been drawn. (1) It illustrates that complex behavior does not require consciousness, even feeling (2) Therefore we cannot argue that lower organisms are conscious or have feeling. There is a third conclusion, sometimes implied but sometimes stated (3) Sufficiently low organisms lack feeling. A justification may be offered—surely there is a cut off or, at least a continuum, with a lower end that is an effective cut off, i.e. below which level of complexity, there is no feeling

Practically, there is of course some lower level of cut off. Would we regard viruses as having feeling? What of complex molecules, crystals, and even amorphous lumps of matter? However, we are also interest in the ontology of the conclusion for it has bearing on understanding of consciousness / Experience which in turn has immense metaphysical and scientific implications as well as practical including moral implications

There are in fact five possibilities (a) The robots are not conscious but display complex behavior, (b) They are not conscious and their behavior is not complex—or not the right kind or measure of complexity (e.g. for life, and feeling) (c) They are conscious—have feeling—despite their simple design (d) The explanation for (c) lies in functionalism: if behavior mimics conscious intelligence, the entity is conscious (to the degree implied by the mimicry) and (f) The explanation lies in the universality of ‘consciousness’ provided we understand that ‘consciousness’ extends down along a articulated / high intensity to elementary / low intensity continuum

On the system established above, consciousness is not explained by elaborate structure, specialization, and layering. It is the form and intensity and other structural factors that are and must be explained by structure etc. What is the nature of the layering? Building up from simple molecules, organization proceeds to complex molecules and materials, cells and varieties, organs, and organisms. The elaboration etc. explains our forms, degrees, and compartments of consciousness; and the buildup explains, via adaptation, the effectiveness of our consciousness and psyche generally in negotiating the our world. This is the explanation (f). In the next paragraph we see how the other alternatives make sense under limited including the practical-everyday interpretations of ‘consciousness’ and ‘complexity’ but not under the full meanings required by FP / reason

In the same framework of explanation, the ‘consciousness’ of the robot is intensely primitive but since the behavior is not of the right kind for survival without higher support (intelligent designers) it must be judged as intensely primitive even though apparently complex. I.e., the robot possesses very primitive consciousness and correspondingly primitive behavior. Thus alternative (a) makes sense if consciousness has its everyday extension and complexity is conceived vaguely; (b) makes sense under a notion of kinds of complexity; (c) and (d) make sense in light of universality of consciousness but now its extension is extended while its fundamental sense or intension is not changed

Moral Implication

For some persons it is a matter of principle to not take animal life. That principle is not fixed in that some do not kill mammals, others avoid stepping on insects. Now, we find that viruses, even electrons, are ‘conscious’. Obviously (1) There must be some practical cut off (2) There is flex in where the cut off is determined (3) It is reasonable that care in deciding and implementing a cut off is a good thing (4) The cut off for an individual or culture need not be rigid (5) It is good to exercise restraint but not absolute restraint in judging the norms of other persons and cultures

Objection from Materialism

In a strict interpretation, materialism is the position that everything is material and only material

To talk of a strict materialism, however, we must temporarily retreat from the Universal Metaphysics, to a materialist understanding, e.g., of our cosmos

The argument regarding the place that psyche / Experience would then go, psyche is not material and therefore the original place of psyche can only be in arrangement and layering and interactions of matter (in brains)

This argument has the difficulty that it is not an explanation at all. If mind is not material and everything is only material there can be no mind. It explains how zombies could behave as we do but not that they should or could feel as we do

Depending on what is meant by ‘matter’, e.g. first order Being, materialism is not problematic

The problem must be, therefore, that it is not true that psyche is not material

A materialist might respond ‘but mind is not found among the explanatory elements of physics’

This has two problems (1) the contradiction above (2) it lacks meaning (and is therefore incapable of being true or false). The case is that mental terms are not found in the normal terms of physical explanation (matter, force, radiation…)

One alternative remains. Psyche is not non-material. Therefore it cannot (logically) be an add on to matter in the sense of something over and above matter. Psyche must therefore already be material (in the extended sense of matter as first order Being which, incidentally, is the only possibility for matter under materialism: matter must expand its sense to equal that of Being). Again there are two possibilities. It is one of the known aspects of matter or it is an as yet undiscovered aspect. From the explanation of matter as first order Being, there is no necessity to an as yet undiscovered aspect. Psyche is, then, second order Being, i.e. (the effect of) matter in interaction

Of course, there are probably undiscovered aspects of matter. FP shows that modern physical theory must be incomplete and even from the history of physics and the incompleteness of physical explanation it is almost inevitably true. Relativity is deterministic; and the most satisfactory interpretation of quantum theory (the many histories interpretation) is deterministic (it is not clear that this is clear for no one history is deterministic). In any case, true determinism cannot explain structure; structure must already be ‘contained’ if not explicit; and novel structure cannot arise. On the indeterminism of FP, we have seen that structure and therefore its origin (the Universe has non manifest phases) must occur

I.e., while deterministic physics explains mind, non-deterministic physics is necessary for creativity, freedom, and origin of organism and mind

What we have seen under strict materialism is that ‘strict materialism’ is and cannot be, after all, what it proclaims; it is in fact a name for a world in which psyche and matter are originally, i.e. constitutively, in the same place and there separation occurs, not in fact, but in our thinking

We can now revert to the universal case, i.e. as seen from FP and the Universal Metaphysics. FP requires worlds such as just described. To that it adds a flexibility that we can begin to explore. Perhaps psyche is not pervasive. However it may pervade. We can think worlds where it does not pervade but we cannot know them directly (because there is no knowing there). The place of exploration begins in Experience

The Universal Case

Experience is the essential sign of mind—mind and Experience are coeval

Experience is the internal aspect of interaction

We may say that where there is an internal aspect to interaction there is mind

However, interaction is always modifying (adapting) to both (or more) interacting elements

However, interaction / Experience / mind are not, in any cosmos or Domain, mental to the degree that animals are—unless there is sufficient elaboration and processing

It seems that the appropriate arrangement, e.g. animal / human physiology, under our physical laws are sufficient to Experience to human / animal degree; however it is not altogether clear that they are

The higher limit of degree of mind under our laws is unclear. Some cosmologists who interpret mind as computation have asserted that our laws are capable of supporting minds far superior to ours

Our physical laws are not necessary to mind at our degree; this is clear from the metaphysics

It seems reasonable in the general case that a Domain should permit sufficient elaboration and (e.g. information) processing capacity for there to be mind of a high degree (e.g. at the level of animal mind); for there to be consciousness at our level of consciousness

What conditions are necessary, what sufficient? Our experience may suggest answers; it is not clear what other approaches to answering these questions there are. Perhaps the information processing approach is adequate

The Universe supports mind of a far greater degree than ours. The ‘Limit’ is limitless (FP)

Consciousness and Evolution

Some philosophers and naturalists have explained the origin of consciousness by arguing that it is adaptive

However, if ‘consciousness’ is not already present in matter, then in evolution a zombie would be just as adapted as a conscious counterpart and there should be no selective advantage to consciousness

On the present account consciousness is already present. Further complex behavior (including brain activity and nerve impulse transmission) are adaptive. Thus the source of animal consciousness is in the amplification and focusing etc of primal material consciousness in organization and layering of matter. Not all complex material structures will be similarly or equally conscious even given prima facie similar degrees of complexity. Thus just arrangements of matter but not matter itself are adaptive, it is not feeling that is adaptive but arrangements, degrees, and degrees of freedom of feeling (higher consciousness) that are adaptive

Freedom and Determinism

Universal Metaphysics requires Experiential organisms of our level and infinitely greater complexity. What is the essence of such organisms and their origin. We hesitate to talk of essence: Universal Metaphysics denies ultimate substance. We can talk only of what is ‘Normal’ and what is ‘Probable’ (as substitutes for essence). The origin of complex adapted organisms does not require variation and selection of necessity under FP; but it seems that this should be by far the most stable and probable route. What is the ‘essence’ of variation and selection? It may be seen as the balance of some mix of indeterminism and selection of stable configurations. This is necessarily allowed and therefore required (in some cases) by Universal Metaphysics; it is also the case for Earth biology and this has some base in the indeterminism / structure balance of physics, i.e. probably quantum theory (in present or perhaps later versions); however, it is conceivable that some advance over quantum ontology will be required to explain evolution and psyche, especially their novelty

The basis of concept formation is analogous to the variation and selection of evolution. The processes within the organism (brain) are not entirely deterministic. There are sparks of indeterminism and these may be amplified perhaps via association into elementary new concepts—amplification etc may be multilayered and multi-stage—and by further association / recombination into full blown new concepts for which there is a natural as well as formal selection going on: intuitive realism (which we can sometimes elect to suspend) and formal criticism (logic etc)

This freedom is essential to an organism that has freedom of self determination including freedom of will. This freedom is not that of those humanist and existentialist thinkers who see human being as essentially self-defining. The balance between our ‘given’ nature and freedom (which is also part of our given nature) is a give and take; we learn with difficulty where we can be free, what freedom is worthwhile, what is feasible, and developing and implementing such freedom and change takes emotional investment and expense and may come at some cost. However, it is real and even in the normal case the boundary between the given and the ‘possible’ is not known, our early estimates of feasibility may be wildly unrealistic in magnitude—inadequately or overly optimistic—and direction (will we continue to evolve, if at all in ‘this’ form, as computer programs versus organic versus non-organic substrate); its determination is a matter that includes experiment; further, the boundary between the normal and the universal (our ultimate identity) is also tenuous and a matter of experiment and learning and begins and remains in the normal (it remains there because as we assimilate new forms they then become ‘normal’). ‘In the life of the spirit24 we are always at the beginning’ (The Book of Runes: Ralph Blum, 1982)

Some Considerations of Mind and Matter in The Universal Case

Imagine a cosmos with two kinds of first order Being: two kinds of matter (and therefore, by the way, at least two modes of time and two fundamental signal velocities)

There are two kinds of second order Being or mind

Now all these kinds must interact (universal interaction); the interactions will of course at times be below threshold of awareness and significant cause

Matter1-matter2 interactions may be experienced as a-causal; or as ghost interactions

Mind1-matter2 interactions may be experienced as sparks of creativity; this is not necessary, for mind1 has its own spark in indeterminism and its structuring of the creative spark in the patterns originating from the spark and cultivated by deterministic and spark combinations

Mind1-mind2 interactions may be experienced as spirit (soul may be identified as the continuity of Identity discussed in sections Identity and Realization and Power)

How Pervasive is Mind?

No further discussion is required to support pervasion of mind in the Universe

However, necessity has not been precisely established and the argument for it not located

Even if absent in reasons, the absence of psyche would seem to be but apparent

What is the necessity of the case? An answer is that FP requires a continuum; and that where psyche’s presence is weak or approaches zero it will be suffused to a greater degree

The underpinning of the case is to think in terms of Being and to then see matter as first order of Being; to see the necessity of second order Being and its necessary identification on the continuum from Limitless to zero

Why can there not be an infinite range of ‘zero’; there can and is; there also can be and is an infinite range of ‘zero’ matter or non-manifest Being… and of non-potent matter; and these will occasionally still be potent with mind; however, except the random case, i.e. the case that has no explanation because no mechanism, mind pervades matter

Attributes

We have seen that, in a generalized sense, matter and mind correspond roughly to Being and Being-in-Relation. They correspond to Spinoza’s attributes—Extension and Thought. However, the indistinct character of matter and mind; that mind is matter in relation; that there is no third term to this ‘series’ shows there is no sense to attributes in Spinoza’s meaning of the term. There are however be modes of matter and mind without limit

Special Metaphysics and Cosmology

See the discussions in the subsequent sections of this chapter

The cosmologies of fiction, myth, and religion (which do not of essence exclude those of science)

Fantasy and the special cosmologies

Metaphysics and Science—a Program

Relationships

Science as Example

Metaphysics as Illumination

Sources in Science

Physical Science

Life Science

Mind and its Study

Implications for Science

General

Topics for Research

Death

Essence of this section absorbed to Journey in Being-Essential.html

Therapy, time, and pain

Death is a significant event

That it stands over life is given in its significance; however, to be worthy of discussion, it is necessary that it should be instructive (that we can do something in terms of accepting / facing it for self / other is part of ‘instruction

Death is a significant cosmological event; however from its significance to Limited form, it deserves special treatment

What is Death?

Secular Thought

In secularism, death is the end of individual consciousness

However, its significance is that of its experience in life through the death of others and through our knowledge of our own death to be

Thus, death is a part of life; actually and in experience

In secular thought we take nothing with us; neither baggage, nor self, nor ego

An initial answer to the ‘problem’ of death is to live well

We leave legacies; but the meaning of legacy lies in living this life well

The Metaphysics

Death is not the end of individual consciousness. The metaphysical concept of death, according to the metaphysics, is: end of all things except soul (whose actuality lies open)

However, it retains the significance of death in secular thought

The metaphysics adds to this significance; we want to know how we connect across death

We may be interested in establishing this connection

Again, a parallel with the secular significance. It is important to the connection to live this life well

We leave more than our mark; but the meaning of ‘mark’ and ‘more’ lie in living this life well; but more: in establishing connection; that too is part of ‘living this life well’ but now the meaning of ‘this life’ and ‘well’ are enhanced

What Can we Learn From Death?

…of course, as a part of life

In Secularism

We take nothing with us

Human Being is always existentially incomplete; we have the potential to be more; many of us feel the desire to be more; what of those who do not?—this is a good existential attitude but if there is no inner attitude of even being-more-in-time, we are as good as dead

However, the desire to be more ends at death; it is the end of all incompleteness, including the existential incompleteness

Death therefore teaches us of bringing projects to a close; this is in a personal sense: it does not exclude their continuation with others whether by direct or indirect / explicit or implicit influence

In youth there is the luxury of approaching projects with the attitude of as-if-I-will-live-forever

We can continue this attitude. However, if we wish, e.g., to complete projects, i.e. bring them to some completion, Death modifies our attitude to them

We can learn this by example from others, e.g. others who died in midstream or outset of projects; and from crises which may teach us resourcefulness, existential attitudes and, especially, the careful use of resources of energy and time, in executing projects; and a first lesson may be: excision of the inessential (which means also excision of this attitude as too rigid)

We can imagine this as an infinite series as we approach death; at every sign of a new phase in aging, we telescope our ambition and commitment even while in interaction with others we sustain projects

However, the fist term of the series is the most significant; for we are always at a first term; and we only learn better what we have already begun to learn

‘Today is a good day to die; I accept Death” are nice attitudes; facing Death is accepting and transcending by appropriate action, the limit of Death

Those attitudes are actually more than nice; for Death is not always ‘timely’ even though it is in a sense never untimely; they are good attitudes; but we can overdo them; we should live today as though it is the last should / may be complemented by live as though I will live forever; an ideal image: facing death, life, knowledge, and ignorance… without facing them… life as action amid meditative stillness

Under The Metaphysics

All the foregoing supplemented by setting aside a pool of resources dedicated to discovery and anticipation of the Unlimited

‘Death as Gateway’ is a topic in Cosmology; though there are special developments, it lies under the transformations that conserve ‘soul’

Power

The ethos of this section is as follows. Power without a name is our interest

Space is devoted to ‘God’ because it is a very common name for power but is immensely misunderstood

God may be a name for an anthropic form of the greatest power. Such a God and lesser interventionist gods are remote possibilities and the metaphysics gives no support to their existence in any specific domain

Mediate powers are the actual and symbolic forces or the world that give Limited forms, e.g. human beings, access to power

It is suggested and will be seen later that the mediate powers are ‘on the way’; they may give access to ultimate power

The Concept and Nature of Power

Power is degree of limitlessness. The Universe is the greatest power

Except for conditions of coexistence domains inherit the limitless power of the Universe

There is no God external to and creator of the Universe

Universe as Ultimate; Inheritance

On God

God as Ultimate Power

Therefore not ‘idea’ or ‘perfect’ in terms of our desires or projections

Like us, more powerful, e.g. hateful… therefore a more realistic notion than ‘perfect projection’

God as Highest Principle

Includes power

Requires search, discovery, andor becoming

On the Concept of a Personal God

It is anthropomorphic to think that ‘i’ and ‘u’ are defined by the human I and you

On Personal Gods

There must be personal Gods

They are not necessarily the most common, robust, or potent

A God that is Abstract and Personal

Minding the Universe

In the practical case, i.e. adaptive and most robust, this is likely to incorporate ‘Good’ as ‘Self-sustaining’ and where self=element ® cosmos

As for the Universe: Phases of Acute, Diffuse, and non-Manifestation/Identity

God as Open

 ‘God’ as Destiny

…as Discovery

…as Conceptual Exploration Awaiting Realization

There are no True Atheists; no True Believers; no true Agnostics

We must know what God is (concept) before God can be accepted or rejected

…before I can say ‘I do not know’

There can perhaps be second order Agnostics ‘I do not know what there is or how much I know or is known’ (because the standard view tends to blur local but intense insight

Our images from religion are stunted… but we tend to judge on this basis

Mediate Powers

Organism and Psyche

Society, Person, Institution

Institutions are cultural and include technology

Nature

Ultimate Power

Ultimate Powers

The Universe

The Highest Principle

The Ultimate and the mediate mesh

Access

Via mediate powers; the Ways etc. of ‘Journey’, below, e.g. meditation…

Direct—intuition and insight of percept-concept; induced by the mediate

Special Metaphysics and Powers

God, spirit, soul, ghost…

World

Realm—Human Being and Endeavor25 its realms of nature, person, culture, civilization, world, and cosmos

On Explanation and Method

The concern is explanation and method in connection with the realm of human being and world

Concept of Explanation

A notion of explanation. Given a phenomenon, an explanation provides insight into how or why it obtains

Explanations may be complete, i.e. predictive; which includes probabilistic theories provided it is shown that there is no more fundamental level. The alternative to complete is partial; i.e. partial explanations provide insight but not perfect insight. Explanations are often thought to be causal; however at root cause is correlation—except in special cases, e.g. the metaphysics; and correlation too provides at least functional explanation; and more since causation is correlation at root

The value of explanation is that it provides understanding

Related Concepts

Theory. Theories are predictive. Theories may be explanatory but are not themselves explanations; they may be systems of explanation (if we reject correlative theories, not all theories are explanatory systems; however, here, we have seen why we should not reject the ‘merely’ correlative)

Argument. An argument establishes a fact, an explanation provides some reason for its occurrence. However there is overlap. Some arguments are explanation some are not. This can be shown with a single example “I know Jones is a thief because I saw him steal on a number of occasions.” establishes that Jones is a thief but does not explain why; but it does explain how I know that fact (an explanation of the fact might be “His older brother taught him that stealing is good.”

Justification. An explanation is not a justification as in the example of why Jones is a thief. In fact on some value systems the explanation may be a justification; this however further emphasizes the distinction between explanation and justification

Explanation and Theory

Clearly explanations have at least partial predictive power and not all theories have full predictive power

The difference is one of degree / preference

Therefore this section might be titled ‘On Theory and Method’

Explanation includes Theory explanation for complete theories; however it allows incomplete theories; and no scientific theory is complete or altogether non-correlative

Explanatory Ideal

The explanatory systems we consider lie on a continuum; however we aim at our best systems (which may be and almost invariably originate in the ad hoc)

Explanatory Systems and Explanatory Triads

Explanatory Triad—Phenomena, Elements, and Framework (the number ‘three’ is not special; ‘elements’ may be placed in ‘framework’ but keeping them separate encourages breadth of application, e.g. different elements subsumed under the same framework, seeing alternate frameworks…)

Note—the number ‘three’ is not special; ‘elements’ could be part of ‘framework’ but it is efficient to keep them separate because nothing is lost but flexibility is gained—a variety of kinds of elements may be brought under the same framework

An explanatory system consists of a domain of (similar) phenomena and a framework of explanation which includes elements and conceptual framework

The following uses the metaphysics as example

Phenomena

In the Universal Metaphysics the domain of phenomena are those defined by ‘whatever has Being’. Since everything has Being, the domain is the domain of all actual phenomena. The first framework is the metaphysical content of the chapter Being and, then, its enhancement in chapter Universe

Elements

In this case we might wish to distinguish the following parts of the explanatory framework. The constitution of the first part is the system the ‘elements’ identified in chapter Being; these elements include Being, Universe, and Void

Explanatory Framework

The ‘deductive’ framework begins in Being. It is the approach of abstraction and naming the given that lies beyond projective

The deductive framework has a second part—second part is the deductive framework of chapter Universe. It concerns establishment of the Principle of Being and the ideas of Logic and limits as key concepts in expressing the Principle. The distinction between elements and framework is somewhat arbitrary because, as we saw, Logic (and Logos) may also be considered elementary; and the framework is an abstract continuation of the previous framework26

A similar distinction may be made in quantum theory where the framework of the wave type equation may be applied to different kinds of system with different elements (particles, fields)

In looking at Human Society, if a general framework is available it may be applied to different societies or levels of society

Explanatory Framework—Universal and Particular

When there is occasion to use two frameworks we may distinguish more from less general

Applied Metaphysics is the join of pure metaphysics, e.g. the Universal Metaphysics (which is general and necessary), and Science (inductive r/t extrapolation, necessary r/t domain of data but otherwise undetermined)

Element and Framework: Arbitrariness of the Distinction

In the Universal Metaphysics, method emerges as among the elements or Objects

This is not the case, say, in physics. That however is an artifact of the separation of ‘natural philosophy’ into science and philosophy of science. The ‘artifact’ has of course much naturalness but still retains an artifactual character

Method

Science

In brief outline the method of science is, roughly, (1) Information / data suggest new / modified explanations (hypothetical systems) (2) Predictions are made (3a) We gain / lose confidence according as predictions are confirmed / disconfirmed (3b) When prediction / explanation is confirmed sufficiently the hypothetical system becomes accepted as a (working) theory and sufficient disconfirmation shows that the ‘theory’ is problematic (4) Disconfirmation leads to doubt; a theory may remain useful for many purposes; however theorizing is now again at stage 1; a search for new empirical / conceptual hypotheses may begin

Immersion and Participation

In anthropology where the subject is human being we can participate; and participation is close to immersion

In the social sciences participation of action is possible and has some realization

In the life sciences some participation is possible via medicine and surgery

In the physical sciences via bio-mechanics and nano-biology; the requirement of immersion is not due essentially to effects of observers in quantum theory but because the varieties, e.g. of cosmological system, is beyond the capacity of Limited form (of psyche)

However in life and physical sciences little immersion is currently possible at the fundamental level; for realization this will change

What is to be explained?

We consider the world divided according to nature and artifact. Here natural objects will be those whose fundamental constitution is not the creation of humankind. The subject matters of physical, life, and psyche sciences are natural. Society, culture, technology are at least partly the creation of humankind; their objects are the kinds of thing that human beings have the capacity to create. There is of course a grey area between nature and artifact

Nature

Matter

Here matter is interpreted widely to include all objects within the physical sciences, i.e. particles and fields; entities with (rest) mass as well as radiation

Phenomena

Structure and motion from elementary particle to cosmos

Explanatory Framework

In outline—theoretical physics of the varieties below and their various mathematical frameworks

Quantum theory is fundamental at the micro-scale; it is explanatory at macro-scales because the macro is ‘made up’ to a significant degree of the micro

Einstein’ relativistic theories for under and predicting local high energy phenomena (including those for speeds that are an appreciable fraction of light speed) and the large scale influence of gravitation in the cosmos

Newtonian Mechanics, no longer considered fundamental, remains sufficient to as a practical instrument for phenomena in the intermediate scale of size and for low energies / speeds

Elements

Particles, fields, space and time (space-time)

The Local Cosmology

Local cosmology is the cosmology of our cosmos and is a small part of the General Cosmology of chapter Metaphysics

Phenomena

Physical phenomena at various scales—solar system to cosmos

Elements

Cosmological objects

Explanatory Framework or Theory

Theoretical physics. Varieties within these theories and proposed modifications to explain phenomena that are difficult to incorporate into the framework of the standard versions of the theories

Special models, e.g. big-bang with inflation

Origins of the Local Cosmology

What lies beyond the big-bang? One answer has been ‘nothing’ for that cosmology defines the beginning of time stretching, in some versions / interpretations to an infinite past and future for which there is no possibility of beyond and before. This is model dependent. It is, for example, not the only scenario in modern cosmologies. Alternatives include multiple ‘bubble cosmoses’ in a space-time matrix

One approach is that of creation / selection of cosmological systems such as that proposed by Lee Smolin (1997 The Life of the Cosmos). That approach may be enhanced by admitting non-conservative and other alternative physics to the mix of variation

Life and Organism

Phenomena

Life, organs, function, variety

Elements

Cells, biochemistry, genome / DNA, sex and sexual reproduction

Theory

Variety and micro-coding; adaptation and coding of the environment-organism in the organism; variation and selection, micro and macro evolution, coding of structure and genetics, adaptability and intelligence as adaptation

What is life?

Begin with one form of life—the most obvious one: life in its organic (carbon based) form on Earth

At the edges we find difficulty in deciding whether, e.g. viruses and other simpler forms, are life. There is a continuum rather than an essence. Therefore, we contribute to the notion: it is not a notion that is given from the nature of Being. At the center however we find entities that we have no difficulty deciding—a wolf is living; and likewise there are at the far edge entities that present no difficulty, e.g. a brick (a contra argument might be made but its inclusion is not germane to the present considerations27)

An argument may be made that ideas are living. Do they satisfy criteria set up in discussing organic life? However, are the organic criteria deciding

Richard Dawkins and others have argued that automobiles are life forms. Dawkins says ‘words are servants, not our masters.’ There is truth to that. However, it seems that the truth is a little of both: in so far as words are windows into the real, we are obliged to the real or perhaps to error. Again, the truth is also a little of neither—in some domains we create the real and are more than mere observers

From FP, nothing is pure nature or pure artifact. It is only in a limited context that such purities occur

Therefore the concept of life remains open, especially in its extension and therefore necessarily also in its intension

It is important to recognize that this openness is a context free openness. Therefore if we expand the notion of life from one context to another, conclusions that obtain in one context do not necessarily obtain in the other

A friend and I were discussing our ‘legacies’ to the future. I observed that under FP, one ‘legacy’ is myself; this is because identity is eternal. He observed our ideas are (a) a form of legacy and (b) ideas are life forms in some sense. There is truth to this; however, we may not conclude that the system of ideas in another or in a library constitutes a continuation of my normal consciousness

Human Being

As an organism, the nature of Human Being is addressed above

Therefore, the focus here is on behavior and mind for Human Being (for general considerations on mind see Mind and Matter)

Human Organism

As an organism, the nature of Human Being is addressed above

Psyche

There are two complementary conceptual approaches to behavior and mind: psyche as organic and psyche as elemental. The question of fundamentals is addressed in . The practical questions of explanation are most efficiently addressed by a combination of the organic and the elemental base

We will consider behavior in as much as it is part of psyche

The discussion is taken up in the next section

Human World

Human nature is subsumed under ‘being and psyche’; it is of course expressed in the social context which is also a source of influence on psyche

Human Being and Psyche

Freedom and Constraint

Material for this section was taken from Freedom and Determinism

Triad

It is important to keep this topic open. There are so many approaches from the tradition. There is western academic psychology. There is western depth or analytic psychology. There is a variety of Eastern and Native brands. There is so much to understand and know and so little known that openness is essential: first to the various ‘brands’, second to experience-experiment-imagination-critical thought, and third to metaphysics and science and literature. There is a debate regarding what is scientific; western academic psychology claims sometimes to be the sole scientific approach but, even from the normal point of view, it is open as to what constitutes science in this broad field and then as to what allegiance we owe to a science that values objectivity over significance (the question need not be answered: we can pursue multiple objectives simultaneously)

Therefore this section on the explanatory triad is kept brief

Phenomena: The Categories of Intuition

Natural—space, time, object, causation, indeterminism; life form, ecosystem, species, heredity

Psycho-social—bound percept-object; modality—five senses and internal senses; freedom, recall, memory: cognition-emotion; sign, Concept, object, and language; design, intention, action; institution… Object—gestalt, binding, constancy; Experience / consciousness and their phenomena (apparent awareness without consciousness, on-off, focal, volitional), identity (including personality)… Existential—Experience and content, Being, Universal Metaphysics, object, Freedom and constraint and their dimensions, humor (intuition of indeterminism and chaos), art (including music and literature)… Health and disorder

Elements

Element—primitive experience, process, interaction; direction: afferent, neutral, efferent

State—bound, free; intensity, modality, quality; memory, transient, stable

Modality, Quality, and Intensityelaboration—external: five senses and their qualities; internal: the body including kinesthetic, pain, affective feeling, feeling of feeling

Framework of Explanation

Explanation of the phenomenology. Explanation of the phenomena from the elements; higher elements from the lower (i.e. mental-mental explanation); neurology to mind is important but not emphasized here. Western and academic systems; Eastern systems; Mythic systems

Adaptation—elaboration of modalities, layering, origin of freedom in binding… Object as adapted—integration, the object, cognition-emotion. Adaptation and development—integration via exposure to objects; freedoms and deficits in emotional-cognitive development; balance between necessity, freedom, and learning; mutuality of social and biological development (versus efficient mode of description). Freedom—human freedoms as an element in adaptation

Universal Metaphysics—consequences for freedom, and the categories of intuition

Timelines and origin of the higher elements

Stimulus-response, i.e. afference-efference; generalized ‘touch;’ the intensity parameter

Conditioning—a form of learning and memory

Emergence of dim consciousness that is perhaps unrecognized as such

Complexity—modality and the quality spectra; (1) The afferent modalities—‘five’ senses, kinesthetic senses, affective feeling, feeling of feeling…, and (2) The efferent modalities—attention, movement…

Compounding—the Object; degrees binding of the external modalities—cognition; degrees of binding of cognition and affect—the general grounded Object

Reflexivity—memory as stimulus

Emergence of animal consciousness

Control of reflex—volitional and constructive thought; cultural learning; icon, symbol, language—spoken and written, communicative and expressive

Emergence of the perhaps special aspects of consciousness that may be labeled ‘human’

Analysis—the ‘element’ as Object

Human Being and Psyche

Primary Goal

Illuminate and characterize our Being, primarily psyche but without suppressing animal / material aspects

Be openness to explanatory system—avoid over commitment to specific systems of explanation; look for simplicity consistent with depth

Delineate characteristics that would be useful / essential to the journey

Balance Between Freedom and Constraint

We may attempt capture of essential nature but the essential goal will be characterization in terms of general fundamentals that provide a framework for understanding, development, and application (what this means cannot be entirely separate from the actual characterization(s)). The characterization will be in terms of an earlier list of choices from categorial alternatives. Here it will be some essentials and not the complete lists of earlier developments. Some of the essential aspects may be afferent / efferent (presence to and presence in), free / bound, inner / outer (world / body: cognition / emotion…), iconic / symbolic, adaptation / adaptability… and we will be looking to illuminate essentials (essences if any should flow from rather than precondition the development) the freedom and kind of freedom that makes us the way we are: living organisms, symbolic capability for representation and communication, personality, creative in the ways that we are (intellect, artifact, art, spirit, society…); the experience of freedom and constraint

The organization of psyche is important. One way to depict this is in terms of categories of intuition (see A Variety of Objects: Exploration and subsequent sections)

Mind and Matter

From Mind and Matter we have seen mind and matter coincide

It is practical to explain mind on its own terms; and useful to also seek material, e.g. neurological, explanation

Here we seek the former as providing understanding and ground for the journey

Parameters

1.      The fundamental characteristic of psyche is Experience. The forms of Experience are ‘pure’ and in association with attitude and action; action and attitude are not separate characteristics

2.      Varieties of Experience. Simple feeling and sensation, emotion, cognition (perception and thought—iconic, symbolic; language; intuition; its categories)

3.      Elementary contrasts that should be part of the foundation or body of any fuller understanding of mind:

free / bound, body / world (awareness) or ‘inner’ / ‘outer’, afferent / efferent / pure, object-awareness: holism and abstraction versus analytic awareness and analytic description, icon / symbol, degrees of intensity, focus / background / scanning / multiple centers of awareness, sensory and feeling varieties, conscious / awareness / unconscious, freedom of recall / association: semi-free, semi-aware

4.      Object awareness, object unity, object constancy… complex varieties of object, e.g. states of affairs, identity, personality and so on

Structure and Processing in Human Mind

We focus on human mind even though some parts of the following describe animal mind generally

Human Mind has the following features

1.      Primal Experience

2.      Tie in—to ‘the environment’

Strictly the inner / outer distinction is metaphorical and the real distinction is body / rest of the world (not Experience / Object for both include all). Conscious binding to body is largely in the form of feeling including pain; binding or tie in to the environment is perception—conscious and less than conscious (there is feeling of the environment as in warmth and the body / rest of world distinction has blurring)

3.      Tie in is afferent / efferent. The root of attitude / action

4.      Variety: sensory and efferent multimodality; two way tie of the modes: environment and organism (brain); later source of cognitive-emotive modes

5.      Multiplication; perhaps a function of coherence and feedback. The source of intensity

6.      Layering: primitive and later, layered, function; root of the autonomous versus central control; connection, association, and reflexivity (all functions of adaptation) (reflexivity allows Experience of Experience and consciousness of consciousness

7.      Multiple centers and therefore

Focus / background due to different degrees of intensity / tie in

Distinction of bright consciousness as the (apparent consciousness)

Apparent awareness without consciousness

Apparent subconscious and unconscious

8.      The evolutionary advantage of Experience / consciousness is not the fact of it (the fact is a necessary correlate of the fact of Being). Rather the evolutionary advantage is the structure, variety, reflexivity, freedom from and binding to the environment

What is the foundation of freedom and what are its dimensions?

In and for Limited forms, novelty of Being and thought require indeterminism; mechanisms, though not necessary, are robust; they are discussed earlier. The metaphysics and modern physics provide kinds of indeterminism that require (occasion in the case of quantum theory; though quantum theory is not indeterministic on all interpretations it is almost inevitable that any final physics will be essentially indeterministic but occasion structure) origins structure and novelty (determinism provides only eternal structure and no origins)

In Unlimited Form, Being is Universe; in acute phases of Identity, all knowledge is perception-in-a-moment; the ‘need’ of the Unlimited Form is descent into Limits again; FP, shows ever-freshness

9.      Degrees of tie-in; idling; freedom of recall and reconstruction (memory, thought: first iconic, then symbolic)

10.  Abstraction (sign, symbol) and language; note the allure of the apparent perfection of symbol / sign; which perfection has two faults; the apparent perfection shown up as incomplete by the incompleteness of symbol systems; and the incomplete rendering of real objects

Initially the symbol refers to objects via complex icons (concepts). The symbol is the stand-in and lends efficiency to thought and communication. However, our complex icons (including those that lie within the categories of intuitions) are projective and approximate (here the category of intuition is important but unlike Kant we do not project the categories of intuition to the world except in some partial and practical sense)

Thus primitive symbolic thought, though efficient, is intuitive and imprecise. This is the strength of atomism whether logical or empirical. If the world and thought are at root atomic (no structure) then we have precision of thought. Over and above the appeals of materialism as materialism this is one of the appeals of science: physical science at least reduces the world to elementary forms to which atomic symbols refer. If the elemental hypothesis of physical science is valid we then have precise understanding of the world. While the degree to which this is possible in science is impressive and while it gives us great and precise leverage, it does not at all follow that extension to all Experience and Being will occur. What was found in Universal Metaphysics is a reduction via abstract to elements; these elements did not cover the world in the sense of knowledge-of and therefore as k-of, Universal Metaphysics is precise as far as it goes but still far from complete; its completeness and power derive from admission of k-that; this is also its weakness: practical knowledge (Experience: common, science…) are required to make it effective and ‘actual’; however it remains that Universal Metaphysics is immensely revelatory and constitutes elements of inspiration and guide

11.  From (6) Experience of Experience and from (10) Naming of consciousness and from (1) Intensity of the experience of Experience (a consequence being the apparent on-off character of consciousness)

12.  A psychological account of Objects could perhaps be given from neurology. However an outline also follows from adaptation and development. Adaptation must be (1) Direct blueprint, e.g. the number of limbs of an organism and/or (2) Indirect and outline or sketch with particular form arising in development. The combination of (a) and (b) is efficient with regard to genetic information and adaptability of the organism. Problems of object perception include how it is that an object is perceived as an object when its parts could be seen as unrelated (object holism) and how the same object appears to be the same object under different lighting, rotation, and changing distance (object constancy). Though neurological explanation is theoretically interesting and practically useful, such explanation may be difficult. However, life has evolved in this environment and the individual develops in the context not only of elementary parts but in the context of parts and wholes (chairs as well as arms and legs rather than exclusively in the context of arms and legs) and the individual develops in the context of different shades of lighting and movement and rotation (even though the ‘definition’ of a chair does not include its motions and need not for it is not the motion and lighting of a chair that is part of adaptation so much as motion and lighting and rotation in general. These are sources of ‘object holism’, which includes the fact and possibility of the experienced-object including and ‘object constancy’ which includes the experience of the identity of an object whose aspect (and even form and constitution) are changing (provided that elements of the original form and constitution are retained; and this is fortifies by either uniqueness—we are immensely sensitive to differences between human beings and after exposure, even identical twins no longer seem identical—or continuity, e.g. seeing the airplane in its trajectory gives us the experience of it being the same plane even though it appears identical to others)

13.  Emotion, cognition, personality, sociability, culture, and language, the forms or categories of intuition as integrated faculties; which integration is not fundamentally different from Object invariance. The account of Objects extends to feeling and cognition and the essential aspect of their integration (over and above their separability), and persons and culture (and of course the break downs and difficulties with these since here lie sources not only of integrative but also of disintegrative—over and above mere breakdown—because adaptive development). Hence, for example, the apparent dependence according to some thinkers of language on social context and thus its fixity; but since cows do not learn language nor do stones however much exposed to our society, the possibility of language and its structure must lie in our bodies (neurophysiology); and therefore the infixity as adaptability to multiple and even imaginary contexts (the imaginary case is important in adaptation)

Is Human Nature Complex andor Ineffable?

If ineffable, this may be a result of opaqueness

Assuming opaqueness, are we opaque to our opaqueness. If so, opaqueness is not essential but an artifact, e.g. of confusion, valuing detail too much, impatience, acquiescing to persuasion and paradigm

FP, requires that Limited form is not ultimately opaque

Openness is essential

Society

Freedom and Structure

Society derives freedom from individual freedom. Is this its only source of freedom?

Change is not predetermined. Some of its ‘forces’ are inherent to society, e.g. in its institutions; some are ‘charismatic’, i.e. lie in the power and freedom and intelligence of its individuals; and some lie in the natural world in its structure and randomness

Simple change is not real change. The latter requires some permanence. One factor of permanence is comparative advantage which is another term for adaptation

Society provides freedom to the individual? Consequently individuals have freedom to pursue freedom (the extent depends on which society and, in any case, even in the most ‘free’ of societies, expression of freedom in a significant way requires efforts as described earlier). Is the provision of freedom to the individual the only function of freedom in society

Social freedom is a source of comparative advantage

Phenomena

Kinds—natural, individual-psychic, and universal. Focus—individual forming groups, i.e. human society

Variety. Change and stability—evolution and other change, stability and instability

Elements

Vehicles—institutions and activities

Foundation of institution—person; language, expression, and communication; knowing, freedom, and foresight; institution…

Institutions and activities—person, blood and other kin groups; language, culture, and tradition; institutions of culture—academic: the disciplines (science, mathematics, humanities including philosophy, ethics, and logic), discovery, coding, recording, reflection, and transmission (including education and archival), art and arts, literature, and religion and morals; organization, transaction, and decision: economics, artifact and technology, mobilization of power, cultivation of talent (see education just above), and politics and state (including government, law, and rule); culture as spanning completeness; tradition as cumulative culture

Social Sciences

This section is for future development. I do not see that social work is a science although it may in part be founded on scientific principles

The main social sciences include anthropology, communication, criminology, cultural studies, economics, education, history, human geography, linguistics, law (but see below), political science, psychology (but see below), social psychology, sociology, and social work

Economics, Political Science, and Political Philosophy

This section, too, is for future development

Its purpose is to investigate the role of the title disciplines in a general framework for Being and civilization

Framework of Structure and Change

Person, psyche, and object (earlier); psychosocial evolution; adaptation of society; free element in creation of culture… and binding in institutions; patriarchal and charismatic forces—center and edge—grounding and change; institution of freedoms of living, expression, and creation

Human Endeavor—Essential Version

Modes

Ideas and Their Incompleteness

Action and Its Completeness

Ideation is action…

Vehicles and Agents of Endeavor

Tradition

Modern Tradition and Its Limits

A Future for the Human Endeavor

Openness

Human Endeavor—Longer Version

The following is the outline of the longer version from § Endeavor

Ideation and Action as Modes of the Human Endeavor

Vehicles and Agents of the Endeavor

The Tradition of Endeavor

Tradition

The Modern Canon

Secularism

Limits of Secularism

Religious Fundamentalism and its Limits

Limits of the Modern Canon—A Summary

The Future of the Tradition of Ideas and Action

JOURNEY

Introduction

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Outline of Contents

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Ideals

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Powers

Dimensions

Note. The ultimate and the mediate are connected; the ultimate contains the mediate; and the mediate is of the ultimate and, at least implicitly, harbors its elements and signs

Being

Ultimate

Limitless power and Identity of All Being

Mediate

I.e. accessible, of this world

Of the agent—individual, group and society—psyche28, culture, and artifact

Of the world—nature (material, organic, psychic); society, culture and artifact

Process

It is useful to write separately of process even though it is part of Being

Ultimate

In the ultimate, entity and process are integrated. As Aeternitas, Eternity has the following meaning: Being and Seeing the Universe in a moment

Mediate

Action—process directed by knowledge, choice, and intention. Thus ideas are a form action and transformation is not action per se but the result of action

Death—when action aims at transformation it recognizes incompleteness (Limits) and since Death is a crucial Limit (whether it is a final end or a gateway) it can be a teacher, providing for us if we can see it and existential closure to aspiration

Essential Powers

Mediate

Individual

Body, mind (all aspects including spirit), and action

Society (group)

Other persons, culture and tradition, institutions and functions (general and spiritual)

Material and Technological

Process

®Experience and enjoyment (patience is the state of enjoyment of the present and action toward goals without distinction)® Idea (Imagination, Realism—e.g., criticism) including knowledge of actuality and alternative… value and choice, goal, means, and execution® Act (Execute)® Review outcome compared to goal, estimate its source, learning regarding these elements®

Ultimate

Knowledge of the Ultimate

The Universal Metaphysics

Culture and tradition, especially science, and symbols (of religion, myth, art…)

Ultimate Being

Icon

Knowledge (Jnâna) of Aeternitas

Aeternitas as Such

Aeternitas—knowing and Being the Universe in a moment

Ways

Ways

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Traditional

Shamanic systems—(1) Communally guided tradition of plant use (a. plant chemicals, b. preparation) (2) Communally guided and interpreted vision quest

Yoga systems—the yogas of Bhagavad-Gita—esp. Jnâna Yoga (knowing and knowledge of the ultimate; and knowing the instruments—Experience, object, concept, word; and focusing and discrimination) and Raja Yoga (psycho-physical preparation, practice of meditative focus toward an end, e.g. the ultimate, … and action); Chöd—Tantra—opening to the world via embrace without seeking of death, the ugly and the evil, Eros in death and death in Eros

Western—Greek, Christian, Jewish, and Islamic mysticism and related practices concerned with transformation of vision and Being, hypnosis, EMDR, psychoanalysis, psycho-behavioral re-education (REBT), 12-step logic

Approaches

A collection—meditation and isolation of the psyche (‘and’ body,) suspension of judgment, exposure to and intuitive integration of archetypes through dream-symbol-Art-myth-Faith…and induction of states by contemplation, via shaman and equivalents, and in groups

Grounding in the real—sacrifice and commitment to a higher end

Eclectic and Experimental

Comment on Received Ways

Teachers, gurus, experts proclaim ‘this is the what yoga is’ etc … ‘this is the way’ … ‘this is the focus’ … ‘this is the goal / there is no goal’ … ‘this is the way to learn / there is no way / (or the student may be subject to a discipline without direct comment or instruction)’

The various ways are real and with real benefits but they are not ultimate; and they cannot be in without one who has become ultimate

The concept and object of present and ultimate Being (goal) are open

Therefore the way must be experimental and a system of experiments will be eclectic as well as experimental

The way interacts with the goal

Practice and Action

Practice is routine and its goal is absorption into routine and exceptional action

The goal of exceptional action is transformation

Progress

The present concept of progress is movement toward the ultimate

An intermediate / ground phase is that of civilization as a matrix, e.g. as islands and continents—separate yet connected

Dynamics

Metaphysics applied to situations (metaphysics includes method)

Learning the dynamic of situations and above general dynamic; cultivation; reinforcement

Catalysts—Enhancing and Inducing Factors

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Means to transform body and psyche for transformation of Being, understanding and perception

Types of state

Psyche—dream, hypnotic; meditative vision—world-self-unconscious, hallucinatory vision, awareness of world-self-other; enhanced kinesthetic focus; brain states

Body—brain states; physiological-psychic states of flow

Catalytic use—focusing dreams etc.; cultivation and integration in awareness over time; sensitivity to, cultivation of opportunity

Enhancing or Inducing Factors

Enhancing or inducing factors—physical isolations and deprivations, inaction, physiological alterations from exposure, extremes in environment, shock or trauma, exertion and exhaustion, pain; presence, fear, crisis and crisis sense—opportunity and opportunistic sense, anxiety—imposed or volitional and purposive; repetitive, ‘distracting’ (from distraction), calming (ANS / CNS), march, repetition and rhythm and dance, focusing on breath; alteration of perspective—e.g., immersion in different cultures and micro-cultures, ‘changing’ handedness—e.g., writing with the non-dominant hand, speaking different languages, use of psychoactive substances; and fasting and diet

Magic

What is Magic?

If magic is control over the ‘supernatural’ then, in the sense that everything is in nature, there is no true magic. However the distinction between ‘of nature’ and ‘not of nature’ is dependent on our knowledge and framework of knowledge and is not fundamental

In other words there are two possibilities regarding magic. (1) Magic is trickery on the one hand or being tricked on the other. The distinction between trickery and being tricked is significant. Trickery is sleight of hand, induction in another of certain states of mind (especially when unknown to the other). Of course there is an element of being tricked in trickery but in trickery it is the trickster that is the active agent. In ‘being tricked’ it is the subject that is active even though not necessarily aware of being so. For example delusion may be being tricked but there is not necessarily any external agent (2) Magic is heightened knowledge and control over nature to such a degree that it seems magical, i.e. not of nature, to others

Magic and Transformation

There is magic in words, in charisma, in science; the magic of words is the powerful use of words to induce mental states in others (or self), the magic of charisma includes that of words… of presence… and of deeds, and the magic in science lies, e.g., in the discovery of forces originally hidden so that use of such forces might seem magical to someone who did not understand them

Awareness of Death, Crisis Sense

Awareness of death, crisis sense—shock into the present, education on the nature of Being

Sensitivity

Sensitivity—related death etc—use of dissociation and splitting to reintegrate via exposure

Places and Place, Include the Sacred

Sacred places—conducive to receptivity, engagement; immersion may be transformational; churches etc.; nature—human ground—and immersion in nature

Ritual, Include the Sacred

Ritual—e.g. Chöd, above… ritual reinforcement and inducement of ways and catalysts

Acting and Drama

Acting—assumption of personality / attitude and transformation in performance, ability, and reinforcing effect on others; reinforcement is the result of success and others’ attitudes, persistence in face of the negative (e.g. Chöd)

What is Written, Include the Sacred

Sacred texts reveal by poetry and educate by cumulative wisdom (expressed literally or otherwise)

Charismatic Transformation. Emphasize Sacred Charismatic Transformation

Charismatic transformation—charisma a quality that moves others to think, act, give allegiance to person / cause… (1) Risk—self-exposure, psycho-social and physical; repetition (reinforcement and reaching audience) (3) Practice, preparation for encounter—E.g. what to say, do; contingencies (4) (Develop) Insight into other’s motivations (5) (Develop) Psychic and physical energy

Action

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Experiments

In V.1 this was A Minimal System of Experiments

The goal is realization of the ultimate. Intermediate goals are (1) Living here-now in itself and in relation to the ultimate (here-now is not other than the ultimate but it is not all of it in horizontal or vertical range (2) Realizing and being on the way to the ultimate in Limited form—taking a path that combines efficiency, minimalism, and enjoyment (3) Realizing and being on the way to realizing ultimate form

Principles and Planning

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Ideation—A Program

The Metaphysics

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Foundation. Formal, Substantial. Realism—Internal, External, Existential. Method

Development. Ultimate depth; substance. Implicit ultimate breadth—implicit representation of all Objects. The Universe is ultimate. Logic as Universal Study including Science, Symbolic System—Logic and mathematics, and other elements of human endeavor

Elaboration. Human Endeavor—Ideas and Action; System of Endeavor including the Disciplines. (Logic), Art, Religion, Science and the Sciences, Objects, Method, Cosmology and Death, Power, Applied Metaphysics and World, and Journey—Powers, Goals, Program, and Minimal System of Experiments

Scientific Method

The Universal Metaphysics rules out (a) and selects (b). If (a) drops the notion that it is on the way to universality it is equivalent to (b) but (b) is still convenient because (1) It suppresses induction and (2) In suppressing induction it makes clear that inclusion of science in Logic is not a relaxing of the criteria of deduction (if there is any such relaxation it comes from the nature of logic itself)

For Limited beings, universality lies in process and requires the whole Being, i.e. not psyche-as-we-understand-it alone. I.e., for Limited beings universality requires participation and immersion

The previous thoughts arise in connection with physical science and cosmology but can be extended to biology (and physical science learns from biological process in seeing how external agency / positing elements are not necessarily part of foundations)

Science

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The issue of determinism versus indeterminism is significant. Except quantum theory, theoretical physics is deterministic. Whether quantum theory is deterministic, depends on interpretation. The many histories interpretation is deterministic, however it is not clear that the individual histories should be regarded as deterministic (here I intend to improve my own understanding). In biology, evolutionary theory requires indeterminism for introduction of novelty

Many thinkers are against indeterminism. I think there are two main reasons (1) Extensive history of and comfort with determinism in religious, secular, and scientific thought as well as day to day experience (2) It seems that under indeterminism structure should not arise and the world should be unpredictable; it seems that under indeterminism the world would be chaos

However, the reverse to item (2) obtains. Determinism is incapable of newness; only what is already built in may obtain; and therefore determinism as explanation is unsatisfactory. If the Universe is deterministic we would of course have to live with any such unsatisfactory consequences. However, absolute indeterminism follows from FP and absolute indeterminism requires the structure, novelty in cosmos, life, and thought

Art and Related Endeavors

Nature of art—expression and communication of what is deepest in human being and capability

Modes of art and related endeavors—painting, sculpture, architecture…; dramatic arts; music; literature

Practice—goal—seeing, absorbing, representing, communicating… and, especially, development of intuition

Religion

Religion as the deployment of all modes of being of individual and group in realization of All Being (and Value and its meaning)

Journey

Phase of Being—(Ideas), Powers, Goals, Ways, Catalysts

Special Phases—Study and design. 1. Organic-Mechanical Being 2. Shared Endeavor—ultimate, civilization, ground

Expression and Communication

Essence absorbed to Journey in Being-Essential.html

Narrative Form

Elements of clarity and precision; poetry of precision etc; see Journey in Being-metadocument.html

Presentational and discursive forms

Writing

Integrate journey—experience, transformation—to narrative

Speaking

Formal—venues. Informal—exposure, anticipation and practice, critical sense

Networking

Informal—practice and action

Formal—research, practice, and action

Publication

Self

Specialty

Mainstream

Learning

Interaction with experience (transformation); learning (see, e.g., Principles and Planning above)

Phase of Being—Transformation

Mediate—ultimate

Psyche, Spirit, Body / Being

Emphasizes local action

Emphasis

Emphasis—the world and the ultimate

Practice and Action

Practice and action—Ways, e.g., yoga, meditation…(see Ways) as training in focus (1) In being present to the world and self (2) In action in action (3) In transformation and transition to transformation

Catalytic Practice and Action

Catalytic practice—see Catalysts above (1) Emphasize presence, crisis sense, exertion (nature), inaction (breath and meditation) over entertainment (2) Death and Critical Sense (3) Place (4) Tantric Chöd (5) Meanings in Sacred Texts (i.e. textuality; select the greatest examples) (6) Charisma—(a) Practice expression and motivation in action; repetition (b) Practice encounter (c) Insight into motivation (d) Cultivate psychic and physical energy (7) 12 Step logic

Self, Culture, Society and Charismatic Action

Emphasizes action in society; see also Special PhaseSocial Being

Self

Right living in relation to self; thinking and activity in relation to others; place of society and culture in the ultimate

Social engagements not connected to the ultimate and realization are secondary to me until I reach that stage when again I have ¥ at my feet; others must know this—I must tell them

Physical health; endurance; flexibility; strength; diet for these purposes and to cleanse

Charisma

Charisma is risk, energy, generosity and patience… also see immediately prior and earlier sections

See Acting and Drama above

Action

Human Endeavor. Realization Is and Requires Distribution (as fact rather than just distributing) and Immanence of Power

Areas. Knowledge (immediate, ultimate), and organization of action (political, economic)

Local material self-sufficiency in balance with globalization

Action toward these ends

Nature and Catalytic Practice

What is Nature?

Secular conceptions include contrast to artifact

Here, nature is seen as source, ground, and contact (to the universal)

Action

Planning… and plan—Act on, review, and reformulate the following… define intentions

Be-ing

Contact with the Real; elements—places, earth, earth forms, water, weather, elements, plant, animal; ground, gate to, image of the ultimate—sacredness of place: conducive to receptivity, engagement

Attunement—body and psyche

Source of ideas

Reflection, review

Catalytic activity—walking, rhythm, repetition; environment inducement; alterations from exposure, extremes in environment, exertion and depletion of internal resources; fasting, isolation

Ways and practice—shamanic vision search; Chöd (Tantra); places (Beyul), animals, and other elements (see Contact with the Real, above) as gates (portal is an overused word) to and maps of inner and ultimate reals

Contact, catalysts, yoga (meditation—Raja Yoga, Jnâna Yoga)

Universal

A role for reflection on and being in abstraction, abstract action, and inhabiting abstract Objects

Special Phase

Essence absorbed to Journey in Being-Essential.html

Also called ‘focused phase’

See § JOURNEY IN BEING-METADOCUMENT.HTML#_SPECIAL_PHASE._TECHNOLOGY

Organic-Mechanical Being

The main concerns are What to model? How to model? The Modeling! The following repeats Organic-Mechanical Being

Modes of Being and Process

Psyche—powers and modes—and Soma; Ideas and Action

Range

Cell to organ; Organism and Individual; Individual to Society and Civilization; Earth to Cosmos; Universe

Modes of Mimesis

Construction—material, organic (organism, ecosystem, and world in evolution)—analog and emulation. Iconic and symbolic simulation and emulation. Science, art, metaphysics. Mathematical modeling: qualitative, quantitative; exact and approximate; numerical. Digital modeling (e.g. based on mathematics and other symbolic models) and digital emulation. Acting—as if; emulating—inhabiting

Design and Development

Study—AI and artificial life or ALife, robotics, adaptive and self-replicating systems, ontology, physical eschatology, theology, cognitive science... Sources—develop this topic, e.g. physical and metaphysical eschatology

See Organic-Mechanical Being for an some sources

Research, development, design, experiment and experimental systems, construction, and deployment

Social Being

For details see Social Being, above

1.      Social and group dynamics—concepts and theories; charisma, participation, and immersion

2.      Preparation, planning, action, sharing

3.      Universal aspect—sharing; ideas—metaphysics, dynamics, journey; from ground to Being

4.      Ground—our world, problem and opportunity, value, action

5.      Universal aspect—civilization

RESOURCES

See site and, especially, Journey in being.html—Resources (Contribution, Glossary, How to train your dragon)

Stories

Taken up in Journey in Being-Essential.html

Special Issues

Taken up in Journey in Being-Essential.html

Sources

Glossary

Index

NOTES

1 Within the sense of ‘being’ as used in the essay, there is a generic use of being and a use in reference to individuals or particular beings. In the generic use, being is a quality. It will be seen that regarding being at the most general level of use, the distinction between quality and thing is empty

Words such as being, metaphysics, universe, and experience have very specific meanings in this essay. They shall be used informally until defined and explained. Definitions are given in the main divisions, Ideas and Journey

When formal terms of the essay are also used casually, the formal use will be Capitalized. Casual use includes informal use as well as use that is formal in other works and contexts

2 ‘Space’ and ‘time’ are used informally in the introduction. The formal treatment does not begin with the position that space and time are given and thus their nature, the conditions for their emergence, and their precursors are topics that will be developed in the main divisions of this essay

3 Except for conditions of coexistence

4 Metaphysics is used in one of its original senses, i.e. the study of things as they are—i.e. the study of being as being. Since the beginning of the modern era the possibility of metaphysics in this sense has been criticized and, today, metaphysics has come to mean other activities such a study of the universe of experience or study of abstract objects. The original meaning has largely been abandoned. The conceptual reason for this is that our minds contribute to knowledge, i.e. things-as-we-know them have a projective contribution from the knower. It is therefore commonly thought that we cannot know things-as-they-are. In this essay metaphysics is restituted to its original meaning as follows. Some objects are so devoid of feature that despite projection they are known perfectly. These objects are the foundation of a development that is deduced from the ‘perfect’ objects. Although it was not anticipated, this turns out to result in a powerful and demonstrated metaphysics. The development neither discounts nor invalidates modern meanings and activities of metaphysics. However, it is essential to recognize (1) That metaphysics is used here in a specific sense and (2) That whereas this sense is commonly thought to have been invalidated, the sense has been restored in the developments in this essay

5 There are of course logical impossibilities but a logical impossibility is a constraint on the freedom of realistic concept formation and not a limit on being

6 From the point of view of Being, conflict is cooperation; this, of course, is not espousal of local conflict

7 In some version of the narrative there is a description of experiments so far

8 Abbr. ‘fundamental principle’ or FP. I have previously called this the Principle of Being, the Fundamental Principle of Metaphysics, and the Fundamental Theorem of Metaphysics

9 To within alternative but equivalent modes of expression and degree of detail of development

10 I.e. it would be a misunderstanding of the communal nature of language rather than ‘incorrect’. Still, as noted, this is a return to original use and a move away from uses that are lesser substitutes that are not really determined by use but are suggested rather than executed and that themselves have some degree of appropriation—i.e. there seems to be an implicit suggestion that these other uses, though different from the original, inherit the significance of the original. However, they do not inherit the significance of the original for they cannot since they have rejected its possibility. What the final norm regarding the meaning of ‘metaphysics’ in for the Limited form of human community shall be is not known for we cannot predict the practice of future community; it is not given that the potential shall be realized. The metaphysics, however, shows its own potential without need for extra-narrative exhortation

11 This is immense for it is putative in modern philosophy that foundations must depend on unfounded axioms or substances or be dependent on yet another ‘foundation’. In other words the consensus is that complete foundation is impossible. The development here shows this extant consensus to be in error. This is shown in principle as well as by constructing a non substance non relative Universal Metaphysics

12 Imagination and experience have been essential to its development but as observed the formal metaphysics has been demonstrated

13 While I use the term ‘narrative’ to describe my writing, there is a suggestion in postmodern use that ‘narrative’ refers to ‘only a narrative’ and, as is the case for so many critical exegeses, the co-suggestion that ‘our’ thought stands above this criticism. Here we have shown that the postmodern critique of real metaphysics is certainly valid and useful as cautionary but that it has no necessity

14 To within degree of detail

15 Human

16 I.e. Individual and personal

17 Imagination and criticism

18 It has no Limit. The only condition on knowledge is Realism. 1. Logical Realism of concepts 2. Empirical Realism of Fact, i.e. agreement with science (É experience) where valid 3. Existential Realism in face of bounds to psyche—centering and reason—for (contingently) limited form

19 Verification is a separate problem and given that there are no reliable reports of unicorns after centuries of reported exploration we should say It is probable that unicorns do not Exist

20 What is the relation of this observation to relation between conservation laws and invariance

21  where is change in entropy, is heat flux into the system, is dissipation of energy in the system, and T is the temperature

22 Omitted in some versions of the narrative

23 I prefer this term to panpsychism because pan-Experientialism does not suggest and it does not have the connotation of ‘little minds’ inhabiting the relative elements of Being (I call the elements because FP implies Limitless divisibility)

24 By spirit I do not understand ‘another plane’; all things lie in the realm of Being, i.e. of matter as first order Being and its interactions

25 That this has great significance to human being is sometimes confused with ‘arrogance’. However it is only so when the significance is seen as exclusive. Non-exclusive self-interest is essential. Further, considered non-exclusively, human being embodies the realm of the physical—matter and cosmos—and the living and, as far as direct experience is concerned, the deepest Being of our acquaintance. I.e., considered non-exclusively interest in human being is fundamental to understanding of All Being

26 Still the distinction may be useful because we might have occasion to use the same framework and different elements or the same or similar elements and a different framework (since the elements themselves constitute a metaphysics or at least a partial though significant one, ‘no framework’ would be a significant ‘different framework’; the relations between Logic and the logics, between Logic and intuition and imagination, and between Logic and forms of physical and biological and psychological theory and explanation may be explored for frameworks; and, deployment of FP as a framework for action would count as a different framework

27 The argument may be germane but its inclusion is addressed indirectly

28 The meaning of psyche used here is totality of the (human) mind—cognitive-emotive, conscious and unconscious. The power of the agent includes the body but this has meaning as an agent of psyche.