Concepts for The Way of Being
To a detailed supplement
ANIL MITRA © March 2018—March 2020
Updated Thursday, March 12, 2020, 10:22:40
The purposes of the document are
1. To list the main concepts for the way systematically
2. For use in the database.
The document has a number of Sanskrit terms for which I do not yet have adequate English terms:
atman—the self that in Advaita Vedanta is identical to Brahman
citta—particular meaning is the ‘heart’ aspect of mind; here it refers to mind in all its aspects
sangha—community of individuals, giving mutual support to realize Brahman in this life and beyond
tat tvam asi—“Thou art that” meaning that the individual is ultimate reality.
yoga—system of ideas and techniques from Bhagavad-Gita and Yoga scriptures to realize Atman as Brahman… to yoke self to universe… here used in a general sense of any such way, regardless of cultural origin
Following are some important concepts. Note the capitalization.
Being—the quality of what is; that of which it may validly be said that it “is somewhere and somewhen” and for which the where and when need not be simple or connected; not defined as a substance; and indeed not a substance
a being—anything that has Being; a part of the universe; plural: beings
logic—generally any system of inference; most commonly deductive logic which is obviously distinct from induction (however that this distinction is absolute is not absolutely clear even thought it seems so)
Logic—logic to which fact is appended; also: argument
matter—first order Being; Being as elementary Being; elementary matter is sensed; as Being is not a substance, matter and mind are not substances
mind—refers to all aspects of mind, not just cognition; Being in experiential relation; second order Being; elementary mind is sensing
reason—critical imagination and experiential learning in relation to thought and action—the proliferation of words such as rationality, logic, argument is quite unnecessary as though there are so many different activities (except of course that some technical distinctions have easy technical significance)
the void—the null part; absence of manifest Being
universe—all that has Being
Consider marking concepts repeated in The concepts.
This section lists only essential and main ideas; for secondary ideas see the main part—The concepts.
Ideas in the overview are also listed in the subsequent sections; ideas that are listed more than once in those subsequent sections, are numbered with subscripts.
becoming, sangha (sharing community dedicated in truth)
Being, ideal elements of Being
metaphysics, fundamental principle, Brahman (ultimate real)
system of real elements (system of real categories)
cosmology, agency, being human, tat tvam asi
The Way of Being, yoga, death
This section is about the cultivation and aim of Being
destiny, edge of the known, paradigm, (limit), sangha, truth (sharing community dedicated in truth), persuasion, the greatest truth, understanding
Being, sameness, difference, existence, verb to be, abstraction, concretion
ideal elements of Being, (categories), ideal element, (all, whole, part, null, manifest, possible), power
conceptual model, linguistic model
We should doubt everything, even doubt itself—i.e. we should doubt but still engage in becoming (absolutes, e.g. ‘doubt all’, should be rendered logical).
possibility, limitlessness, necessity
metaphysics, possibility of metaphysics
consequences for identity, peaking, merging, Atman, Brahman, Aeternitas
perfect metaphysics, perfect epistemology
¿what has Being?
system of real elements (system of real categories), (real element, abstract, concrete)
psychology, function, personality
dimensions of experience
becoming human, emergence of reason
reflexive reason, life roles, remaining human, function roles
tat tvam asi, transcendence
civilization, civilizing the universe
The Way of Being, the highest pursuit
aim of Being
yoga, way of life, catalyst
death (as fulcrum), openness to the infinite, finite resolution of significant meaning
This part is a detailed listing with explanation.
This section is about the cultivation and aim of Being
becoming and manifestation; also see a relationship between Being and becoming
destiny (the unrealized that is thought to be foreseeable and realizable), cycle of being (i.e. of becoming), life, form, birth, stages of growth, limit, possibility, decline, death (reckon, day), merging with universal identity, yoga (meditation), peaks of identity, limitlessness
means, ideas, action; speech, persuasion (sharing, rhetoric), writing (text), and life; text: resources, adaptable templates (universal, everyday, program and priorities, stories)
edge of the known (and unknown); (givenness of balance in) stability and fluidity in worldview, paradigm paradigmatic limit and flux, knowledge, and concept meaning (distinguished from significant meaning which are the two uses of meaning in this document)—primal (holist), secular (open vs closed: science, art, humanities), and suprasecular (secular plus: religion, dogmatic vs open)
sangha (sharing community dedicated in truth) and persuasion—state first and always: the greatest truth and way (to other and self); then: explanation, reasons, lesser truth and means
culture, significant meaning, the immediate and the ultimate, tradition, paradigm
history of the way (stories, drama); a human endeavor; an individual life (personal story, autobiography) and motives
understanding narrative (difficulty at the edge of the known)
reeducation of understanding—intuition and system of referential concept meaning
Being, sameness, difference
I.e. existence; not contrasted to change—becoming—or non-being; derived from the verb to be used in a tense, place, and quality neutral sense)
¿how Being? It is precise by abstraction—there is existence; concretion.
When and where Being emphasize being-in and being-in-relation to the immediate and the ultimate, becoming emphasizes being-toward an end. From this characterization, ethics is immanent in Being.
experience, (concept), experience as fundamental or primitive and so given; ostensive definition
near synonyms and related terms: consciousness, subjective awareness, phenomenal awareness, ‘what it is like’, qualia
alternate meanings not used: cumulative experience, common experience, external experience
a standard model of the world (of experience)—the following are real
experience as: given, experience-of: pure experience, attitude (aboutness, of the world, intentionality), volitional, action oriented (internal, external)
experience and effective Being (effective existence)
self (‘I’, experiencer) and world (experienced; object, null object) or real world (metaphorically but mistakenly thought of as the external world—for the world contains the self and experience), freedom of will, other minds and agents
standard model: details
reflexive experience (experience of experience), referential experience
methodological skepticism, (‘agnosticism’), system of philosophical problems to reconstruct the world
skeptical doubt: standard model—givenness of experience etc; solipsism
reconstruction of world: world as maximal field of being-experience (standard maximal field of being-experience and its reduction), necessity of from possible interpretations—world as field with selves and universe as self, world as material—and their logical indistinguishability; strict solipsism (untenability of), probable reconstruction
Study of all things of mind and behavior; it is not academic psychology—i.e. not merely academic psychology of the twentieth and twentyfirst centuries.
Development is deferred to psychology where reasons for deferment are given.
element or ideal elements of Being (or categories, ideal and real)
ideal element of Being (known perfectly, typically abstract—i.e., sufficiently abstracted from experience to permit perfect knowledge; note that even the concrete are abstracted)
a system of ideal elements
Being (i.e. Being itself, which is an element or category)
the universe (all, whole), beings (singular: a being or existent or part, which may include the whole, proper, and null parts), the void (null or null part), reason, manifest, possible (relative to the universe the possible is manifest somewhere in the history of the universe), power (experience as effective power), (possibility, and potential
Purpose: Kinds of being fleshes the bare concepts of ‘Being’ and ‘beings’
kind (of Being), elements of the world
natural (material, living), experiential (sentient, referring, standard psychological, free willing or agent, human), social-civilization, pan-universal
models of the world (developed later)
E.g. dynamics (entity, interaction, change), form and formation (paradigms of)
conceptual model, linguistic models
examples: noun-object, verb-object, trope-object, sentence-object
reason (abstract – allows perfect-ion, concrete – pragmatic to perfect)
rationality, method, reflex process, truth, knowledge, knowledge system, culture-tradition (validity), action (technology), cumulative experience, correction, learning
Entire mind—cognition, criticism and construction (imagination), emotion and feeling as guide and datum
Role of doubt; canonical dilemmas
possibility (logical possibility, limitlessness real possibility—(logical), universal possibility, natural possibility, agentive possibility; metaphysical possibility—as real and as hypothetical-for-argument); necessity
fact, observation (experiment, observation, repeatability, corroboration, consistency with other observation), pure fact, confirmation (abstraction)
inference, necessary inference, deduction, logic, Logic, validity, soundness, likely inference (generalization, conduction, scientific method—details below, under science), strong argument, weak argument
metaphysics as science
concrete sciences—natural sciences, social sciences, historical sciences, linguistics
abstract sciences—logic, mathematics, statistics, computer science
nature, pattern, law (Law, theory), pure history
religion (as exploration of the trans-empirical realm by intuition, symbol, metaphor, art, metaphysics, and so on; without claim as literal knowledge or science; but without violation of reason)
study of religion cannot be scientific or empirical alone but must be empirical, conceptual, and ideal in light of the perfect universal metaphysics
religion and spirituality intersect; some people prefer the latter term but I prefer religion in all its aspects including those that we see as limiting and destructive
value (sources of; as premise) or axiology
art aesthetics, ethics
metaphysics, (possibility of), (abstract, concrete)
existence of the void
heuristic (if the universe is in a void state), proof (nature of the void and law)
the fundamental principle of metaphysics (FP): the universe has limitlessness i.e. is realization of logical possibility
A perspective on the universe as the logically possible. A common approach to ultimate physics is projection from history of physics. An uncommon approach is to enquire of the outer limit of all knowledge so as to project in. What is the limit? It does not exceed logical possibility.
And we have just shown it reaches this limit. We are about to find this immensely empowering in itself and addressing questions of science, the meaning of its fundamental concepts, and a broad perspective on its future trajectory.
consequences for identity
universal, individual, finitude
perfect metaphysics (dual, abstract-concrete integrated)
perfect epistemology (dual, integrated), meaning of the phrase ‘object of thought’ and possible objects of thought
local metaphysics, local epistemology, science metaphor, art, religion
the perfect metaphysics gives context to the local and alters its significance—enhancing its existential significance if somewhat diminishing its pragmatic significance, particularly the significance of the standard paradigms primal, secular, and suprasecular; these do retain significance as in systems of human knowledge (knowledge system) but they are no longer ultimate in significance
existence of the void
response: heuristic (fundamental explanation will be necessary and make no assumption; will not distinguish among manifestation of logically possible states), proof (equivalence of existence and non existence of the void)
response: internal consistency (reason, logic), empirical consistency (science, common experience)
doubt: magnitude of claim, utility of claim, triviality (including triviality of Being)
response: rationally irrelevant, yet
magnitude—motive to doubt and resolution as above and comparison to science: the metaphysics is more rational and globally empirical; less locally empirical, which is irrelevant as the metaphysics is trans-local
utility—the metaphysics is existentially powerful and, with local knowledge, powerful both locally (the local is enhanced) and in realizing the ultimate
triviality—it is trivial but powerful
essential problem of metaphysics
The ideal elements were real and perfectly known by abstraction. Via abstraction of the essential from the particular, there is Being—there are beings. From an abstract perspective, Being as quality may be seen as a being.
The ideal elements were real and perfectly known by abstraction.
The perfect universal metaphysics extends the metaphysics of the ideal elements (the pure or abstract metaphysics). The pure shows the ultimate; the unattainability of the classical local ideals and therefore the absence of need for it; and the local pragmatic knowledge as perfect instrument for attainment of the ultimate and perfect in its pragmatism; and therefore a dual metaphysics and epistemology as perfect (this does no negate the classical ideal in that we want better local knowledge even though we know it cannot be perfect).
The real elements are a perfect instrument, interacting combination of the ideal and the pragmatic.
(the ideal and abstract as real)
system of real elements (system of real categories)
real element of Being
the abstract and the concrete (elements)
truth (or knowledge) as correspondence distinguishes the abstract as ideal from the concrete
on dual correspondence-pragmatic truth the abstract-concrete merge as perfect
dual correspondence-pragmatic truth
modes, e.g. sameness, difference, proximity, unimodal extension, spatial extension, duration, and spacetime
dynamics (triad of object-interaction-process or identity-interaction-change at material and agent levels, form and formation (paradigms of)
experience-experienced (roughly mind-matter)
attribute, experience as the single world attribute
cosmology is general cosmology and all its divisions
general cosmology, method
method(s) (reason, descriptive paradigm: the metaphysics, possibility, models of universe—of Being and identity)
universe as limitless arrays of cosmoses (in extension) and identities, merging into, peaking as, dissolution from one identity; manifestation as one-step and multi-step with transient emergence from the void (emergence from the void); there is no external creator for the universe but one cosmos may be implicated in the creation of another
form, cosmology of formation and origins
one-step as remote possibility, multi-step with transient emergence and adaptation (adaptation paradigm: random variation and selection for stability) as ‘symmetry capture’, stability and relative stability (symmetry and near symmetry), cosmological scales
standard cosmology and physics—big bang, general relativity, quantum theory and standard model of elementary particles
physical models of formation—out of quantum chaos, multiverse (bubble universes), adaptive systems models
ab initio models—see cosmology of formation, adaptation, stability, symmetry, dynamics (superposed residual indeterminism—e.g. quantum, models of cosmos), and conservation laws; conservation and second order dynamics; transience of origins as source of immanent physics: physical identity-dynamics-extension (as in general relativity); quantum behavior and quantum vacuum as vestige of transients from the void
determinism (general, absolute determinism), indeterminism (general, absolute indeterminism)
cause, causation, causality, acausal process
With Being as Being or first order Being as the preferred concept of matter, mind is Being in relation (experiential relation) or mind is Being in relation or second order Being, the preferred concept of mind, which always has the potential to be experiential (from FP, and from which there must be mind). Here, ‘mind’ is the most general term for the mental, covering sensation, perception, cognition, feeling, and emotion.
Form is logically necessary for mind but further material substrate is not—the form is (part of) the material; multiple modes of mind (and matter) are possible even in a single cosmos but in stable cosmoses it may be expected that there is a single mode of matter and correspondingly a single mode of mind; different modes from the same or different cosmoses may merge and emerge as other modes or a single mode
scales, micro to meso; molecular, chemical, and physical biology
theories of evolution, variation, selection, adaptation
history of life
Psychology began in Being, particularly sections experience and the given, experience and the world, ideal elements of being, and kinds of being. It is placed here to keep early development direct, to benefit from the metaphysics, to use terms for mind and matter that are as broad as possible in scope and that avoid their distorted connotations, and to avoid circularity.
Here psychology is broader in scope and method than academic psychology which has appropriated the term ‘psychology’ in such a manner as to distort it.
Psychology will mean study
Of all things about mind—all function: cognition, emotion; memory; aspects of function, e.g. learning; personality and growth
Of all things related to mind—body and brain (biological psychology), mind and world
By all means—description; academic psychology; conceptual or philosophical psychology (initiated earlier)
reason, methodological skepticism
philosophy of psychology, science of psychology
See the section real elements of Being.
effective Being (effective existence), real Being (existence, existence and effective existent are the same; power and effective power are the same)
reflexive experience (experience of experience), referential experience
concept (as general mental content, as object capable of referring; higher concept), object, referential meaning (referential concept meaning) as concept-existent or concept-object
language and linguistic referential meaning (or linguistic referential concept meaning) as [symbol-object] or sign-concept-object)
experience, dimensions of experience, experiencer, experienced (inner, psyche, body, recall (memory); outer, world, other; holist), form-quality
(not currently for development: phenomenon, subject, object or as-if object)
bound content (percept-feeling), free content (higher concept, emotion or concept-feeling), freedom of will, foresight
intense, neutral, imperative
cognition (perception, conception, language), emotions (fear, joy), pain
development, plasticity-fixity, elements, type and relationship to Being
(conceptual) (see pragmatic agency and becoming, below)
agency (deployment of ability, emphasizing the following)
foresight, dynamics, will, metaphysics, reason
intrinsic transformation, instrumental transformation
value, or axiology
value as real (from the metaphysics and nature of the abstract)
The Way of Being—the highest pursuit as seen from the metaphysics—see the Way of Being.
recall that reason involves the entire being
Being at the intersection of the limited and the limitless; finite Being capable via mind of understanding and negotiating the infinite in abstract and the concrete beginning of limitlessness.
Grounded in the world (nature and civilization) by body (and mind) and by mind in the universe.
becoming human, growth
emergence of reason, childhood
understanding reason, reasoning about reason
culture, role, adjustment, and achievement
life roles: student, adult, relationship, parent, maturity, ageing and dying
remaining human, time, death, authenticity
function roles: play, education, life path (career: maintained, maintainer, forerunner or outlier, leader), seeking
tat tvam asi (“you are that”; self as ultimate real)
transcendence: self-transcendence, culture-transcendence
defining limits of culture and paradigm, reason and the ultimate, actualizing
In on the idea of spirit.html, the concepts of spirit, soul, (and God), are found ontologically superfluous.
There is no ontological need for the concept of spirit over and above that of Being.
local civilization, human civilization, universal civilization, civilizing the universe
instruments (of civilization)
reason, metaphysics, social science, information and technological science of universal civilization, art, religion, pragmatic agency
The Way of Being—the highest pursuit as seen from the metaphysics—to know and realize the real and valuable in the immediate and the universal. From the metaphysics this is rates enjoyment over avoidance of pain in realizing, merging in peaks of Being.
endeavor, goal, path, destiny
aim of Being
The way of Being
pragmatic agency (feasible agency; as follows)
principles of agency (the metaphysics, dynamics, reason)
knowledge system (intrinsic—‘internal’ and self-mind oriented, instrumental—external and world-body oriented)
yoga (intrinsic), (principle, nature—to bind or yoke self to universe; practice, action—yoga as instrumental), (traditional and non-traditional means to “apprehend” the universe—i.e. to know – understand – become the essence of the universe), meditation
art (iconic, literature, metaphor, drama, ritual, architecture)
way of life (knowledge, metaphor, attitude, action phases of life, sangha)
walks of life
impediments (resentment, fear, anger, …), overcoming in balance with achievement; external resources (the exemplary, the way, community), internal resources (reason…)
cognitive (citta, vijñana)
science (instrumental); science, sciences and immersion (intrinsic)
sciences of nature, psyche, society and civilization; technology
journey of Being, individual journey, being in the present, the immediate and the ultimate
this life as finite, death as end to this life
knowledge of death to enhance meaning and experience in this life and beyond: the finiteness of this life as fulcrum to openness to the infinite dual to finite resolution of significant meaning in the present
planning <the date of> one’s death
templates (universal template, everyday template, program and priorities, stories—drama, myth, metaphor, allegory, parable, novel)
Concepts are marked below but unnecessary to the database. Appropriate resource concepts are in the section on becoming.
topic, influence, thinker, school, actor
publication (primary, secondary, tertiary)
document (personal, shared), biography, autobiography
database theory, knowledge generation, knowledge assistance
general, knowledge, metaphysics
author, text, literature, writing (personal, shared), resource
 The presence of these notions, secular and other, at this point is ‘for consideration’, not as fact or dogma.
 ‘To be’ may be specific or nonspecific respect to place, tense, and quality. For Being, the nonspecific is the primary interest. In abstraction suppresses the distinctions.
 More on abstraction and the related notion of meaning later. In an alternate development, language, meaning, and reason could be preliminary to Being.
 An ideal element is perfectly known, typically in a correspondence sense by conceptual abstraction. Thus the ideals are typically abstracta. However, the abstract are real. What we call concrete tend to be objects-in-direct-experience which are also known by abstraction—i.e. perceptual abstraction. If pragmatic knowledge is admitted then the concreta are also perfect. The abstract-concrete distinction or continuum is rather metaphorical in character.
 Plurals are ‘beings’ and ‘existents’.
 A part need not be simple or connected and the defining feature of a part need not be based in spatiotemporal-like sameness and difference; a set of entities specified by the number ‘two’ or exhibiting ‘two-ness’ or a range of energies (where energy has meaning) are a part. A part is a being and a being is a part. There is no further connotation to ‘Being’ and ‘beings’. Connotations are introduced via kinds of being.
 As defining the world, elements and models are essentially metaphysical. The degree to which these may be precise in general is not given in advance of identifying or defining and critiquing the metaphysics.
 Mechanics is an alternate term. What are some further possible terms?
 Kept separate from argument because possibility has a special role in developing the metaphysics
 As science, metaphysics is not essentially as concrete-empirical as the concrete sciences and not essentially as abstract-conceptual as the abstract sciences but employs method, the abstract, and the concrete as they are useful in a science of Being, beings, and the universe.
 Refers to the temporally indeterministic side of history.
 Value falls under reason and rationality because many of their uses require input from values and affect. Further, though objectivity in values may be elusive, they will be seen real and subject to critique and improvement even where consensus may be difficult.
 Previously ‘pure metaphysics’.
 Extended category; equivalent to ‘element’. Includes the ideal elements or categories.
 Identity is (sense of) sameness with difference (change)—as experienced, existent, or object. Obviously some kind of continuity is involved; it may be in memory and identification rather than ‘material’ continuity. As far as the principle of identity is concerned, it is not necessary to explicitly resolve the nature of the continuity.
 Generalized spatiotemporal—identity derived—sameness and difference. Difference with and without identity mark local time and space, respectively.
 Why second order? Perhaps for conservation and translation invariance.
 I prefer experiential-experienced over the varied and limited connotations ‘of mind’ and ‘of matter’ because of the varied connotations of the latter. Thus, ‘mind’ often omits emotion; and these equivalents all limited: material, physical, sensible, manifest, effective, causal, energetic and so on. Some possibilities for matter are first order Being; possibilities for mind are second order Being, psyche, the Pali ‘citta’. Citta would be in an abstract-general use that suppresses distinctions of process vs. entity etc and includes manas and vijñana.
 In the sense of Spinoza who identified our two attributes as thought-extension, or mind-matter. Spinoza explained world as God who had an infinite number of attributes. I argued that there can only be two attributes in the mind-matter series but that beings can have an infinite number of properties. I now argue that there is a single ‘attribute’.
 I.e. the major components of Darwinian evolution. Not a reference to Lamarck’s theory or any teleological theory.
 Meaning that existence and some of its facets, e.g. freedom of will, are or can be known objectively… and not that the putative objects experience are known ‘objectively’, or not, without investigation.
 What it is and how it is done.
 Our civilization is the web of human culture over time and continents; greater or universal civilization is the interacting matrix civilizations and Being across the universe.