The meanings here are, roughly, among the received meanings; the aim is partly for mooring but also as reminder that the meanings in the way of being, while related to the received, are and have to be their own meaning, and not a token of some presumed universal meaning

axiom , postulate    axioms and postulates are primitive or given truths of an axiomatic system, sometimes regarded as self evident; sometimes, as used by Euclid, the axioms are general truths or principles of deduction, while postulates are the primitive truths of the particular system

method        1. Any procedure employed to attain a certain end. 2. Any knowing techniques employed in the process of acquiring knowledge of a given subject-matter. 3. The science which formulates the rules of any procedure.

experience   the condition or state of subjectivity or awareness; the term differs from consciousness by emphasizing the temporal or passing character of affective undergoing; usage is not uniform… thus, Bradley identified it with consciousness, while W. James used it to mean neutral phenomenon without implications of either subjectivity or objectivity

empirical      relating to experience

given           whatever is immediately present to the mind before it has been elaborated by inference, interpretation, or construction

abstract        designation applied to a partial aspect or quality considered in isolation from a total object, which is, in contrast, designated concrete

concept        any generic or class term (Kant), as abstract object vs mental representation (general),

intentionality                    Latin intentio, from intendere, to stretch. The property of consciousness whereby it refers to or intends an object. The intentional object is not necessarily a real or existent thing but is merely that which the mental act is about. Intentionality is the modern equivalent of the Scholastic intentio.

object, existent       that toward which consciousness is directed

meaning       a highly ambiguous term, with at least four pivotal senses, involving (a) intention or purpose, (b) designation or reference, (c) definition or translation, (d) causal antecedents or consequences; yet other meanings or variants are (i) linguistic meaning (a variant of b) and (ii) significant meaning or ‘meaning of life’ somewhat related to a)

type-token ambiguity       for a word with multiple meanings, the individual meanings are tokens, which belong to the class of meanings or type; often but not always, the class is a family but generally the class may be multiple but unrelated families

knowledge   relations known. Apprehended truth. Opposite of opinion. Certain knowledge is more than opinion, less than truth. Theory of knowledge, or epistemology (which see), is the systematic investigation and exposition of the principles of the possibility of knowledge. In epistemology: the relation between object and subject

epistemology         the branch of philosophy which investigates die origin, structure, methods, and validity of knowledge

empiricism   that the sole source of knowledge is experience; experience may be understood as either all conscious content, data of the senses only, or other designated content; may deny that any knowledge, e.g. universal and necessary truth, can be obtained a priori

rationalism   a method, or very broadly, a theory of philosophy, in which the criterion of truth is not sensory but intellectual and deductive.

existence      the mode of being which consists in interaction with other things; opposite of essence; in Husserl’s writings “existence” means being of any kind (or, more restrictedly, individual being)

foundation             foundationalism concerns philosophical theories of knowledge resting upon justified belief, or some secure foundation of certainty such as a conclusion inferred from a basis of sound premises. The main rival of the foundationalist theory of justification is the coherence theory of justification, whereby a body of knowledge, not requiring a secure foundation, can be established by the interlocking strength of its components, like a puzzle solved without prior certainty that each small region was solved correctly

substance     the term used to signify that which is sought when philosophers investigate the primary being of things; in metaphysics, primary substance is the individual unity of matter and form, and secondary substance is the universal form which is individuated in each thing

neutral monism                the doctrine that regards neither mind nor matter as ultimates

materialism  that only matter is existent or real (matter is the physical or sensible)

idealism       any system or doctrine whose fundamental interpretative principle is ideal (emphasis—of ideas rather than of values); metaphysical idealism identifies ontological reality exclusively with the ideal, e.g. mind, spirit, soul, thought

to be

being           that which is, without qualification (Spinoza); the varieties of meaning and distinctions therein are of interest here in their multiplicity and which are excised; here the lack of qualification includes that ‘is’ refers not to temporal, nor spatial distinction, nor, except so far as it may be necessary, even to lying within space or time

nonexistence          non-being: (1) non-existence or the non-existent; absence or privation of existence or the existent; (2) absence of determinateness or what is thus indeterminate j (3) unreality or the unreal either lack of any reality or what is so lacking (absence, negation, or privation of reality)* or lack of a particular kind of reality or what is so lacking;  otherness or existents of another order of reality than a specified type* failure to fulfill the defining criteria of some category, or what so fails 5 (4) a category encompassing any of the above. Confusion of nonexistence and unreality renders paradoxical the question whether non-being is

power, effective cause     the physical, mental, and moral ability to act or to receive an action

causa sui      cause of itself; necessary existence

part, whole   most applications of the concept of whole explicitly resort to a principle which asserts that a whole is more than the sum of its parts; a theorem in the logician Lesniewski’s formal theory of part-whole relationships (mereology), states that every object is identical with the sum of its parts

world           the domain of human experience

interpretation         the assignment of meanings to various concepts, symbols, or objects under consideration

universe       metaphysics—(1) the complete natural world, (2) that whole comprised of all particulars and of all universals, (3) the absolute; logic—the universe of discourse in any treatment is the class such that all other classes treated are subclasses of it and consequently such that all members of any class treated are members of it

void             the philosophical concept of nothingness manifested (“nothingness” is a philosophical term for the general state of nonexistence, sometimes reified as a domain into which things pass when they cease to exist or out of which they may come to exist)

modality      the name given to certain classifications of propositions which are either supplementary to the classification into true and false or intended to provided categories additional to truth and falsehood namely to classifications of propositions as possible, necessary, actual (vs potential, possible; also different from necessary in that necessary existence implies but is not actual), problematical, and the like

possibility, necessity        see above; according to distinctions of modality, a proposition is possible if its negation is not necessary; a proposition is necessary, if its negation is not possible

necessity      a state of affairs or being is necessary if it cannot be otherwise than it is

real necessity         real necessity is that whose negation would be contrary to the nature of the world—e.g., negation of physical necessity would violate laws of physics

logical necessity     that whose negation would violate logic

formal logic           investigates the structure of propositions and of deductive reasoning by a method which abstracts from the content of propositions which come under consideration and deals only with their logical form

probability   chance, possibility, contingency, likelihood, liveliness, presumption, conjecture, prediction, forecast, credibility, relevance; numerical value associated with likelihood of an outcome based on identifying equally likely events and number of events and counting the number of events that count as the outcome vs total number of events; associated with lack of knowledge vs properties of physical reality vs conceived implications of conditions of creation

unconditional being

greatest possibility

metaphysics           traditionally given by the oracular phrase, “the science of being as such.” To be distinguished from the study of being under some particular aspect; hence opposed to such sciences as are concerned with ens mobile, ens quantum, etc. The term, “science”, is here used in its classic sense of “knowledge by causes”, where “knowledge” is contrasted with “opinion” and the term cause has the full signification of the Greek aitia. The “causes” which are the objects of metaphysical cognition are said to be “first” in the natural order (first principles), as being founded in no higher or more complete generalizations available to the human intellect by means of its own natural powers

metaphysical possibility             metaphysical possibility is either equivalent to logical possibility or narrower than it (what a philosopher thinks the relationship between the two is depends, in part, on the philosopher’s view of logic). Some philosophers have held that discovered identities such as Kripke‘s “Water is H2O” are metaphysically necessary but not logically necessary (they would claim that there is no formal contradiction involved in “Water is not H2O” even though it turns out to be metaphysically impossible). In reality though, water also contains H3O+ and OH− ions (https: // en. wikipedia. Org /wiki /Subjunctive possibility)

category, dimension         In Aristotle’s logic a category is (1) the predicate of a proposition) (2) one of the ultimate modes of being that may be asserted in predication, viz.: substance, quantity, quality, relation, place, time, position, state, action, passion.

identity        in psychology: personal identity, or the continuous existence of the personality despite physiological and psychological changes

extension, duration         

history         ambiguously used to denote either events or records of the past (‘historiography’ is used for history as record); also ambiguous in denoting natural as well as human events, or records of either

ethics           that study or discipline which concerns itself with judgments of approval and disapproval, judgments as to the rightness or wrongness, goodness or badness, virtue or vice, desirability or wisdom of actions, dispositions, ends, objects, or states of affairs

cosmology   a branch of philosophy which treats of the origin and structure of the universe. It is to be contrasted with ontology or metaphysics, the study of the most general features of reality, natural and supernatural, and with the philosophy of nature, which investigates the basic laws, processes, and divisions of the objects in nature


imagination            imagination designates a mental process consisting of: (a) The revival of sense images derived from earlier perceptions (the reproductive imagination), and (b) the combination of these elementary images into new unities (the creative or productive imagination.) The creative imagination is of two kinds: (a) the fancy which is relatively spontaneous and uncontrolled, and (b) the constructive imagination, exemplified in science, invention and philosophy which is controlled by a dominant plan or purpose.

criticism       (Kant.) An investigation of the nature and limits of reason and knowledge, conducted in a manner to avoid both dogmatism and skepticism

skepticism    (1) a proposition about knowledge that (i) no (almost no) knowledge is possible or (ii) that all (most) knowledge is associated with doubt (2) a proposition about a method of obtaining knowledge: that every hypothesis should be subjected to continual testing

doubt           philosophical doubt has been distinguished as definitive or provisional. Definitive doubt is skepticism. Provisional doubt is the rule proposed by the Cartesian method of voluntary suspension of judgment in order to reach a more dependable conclusion

evolution     the development of organization. The working out of a definite end} action by final causation. For Comte, the successive stages of historical development are necessary. In biology, the series of phylogenetic changes in the structure or behavior of organisms, best exemplified by Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species. In cosmology, cosmogony is the theory of the generation of the existing universe in space and time. Opposite of: epigenesis

determinism           the doctrine that every fact in the universe is guided entirely by law. Contained as a theory in the atomism of Democritus of Abdera, who reflected upon the impenetrability, translation and impact of matter, and thus allowed only for mechanical causation; the doctrine that all the facts in the physical universe, and hence also in human history, are absolutely dependent upon and conditioned by their causes; in psychology, the doctrine that the will is not free but determined by psychical or physical conditions

accidentalism         the theory that some events are undetermined, or that the incidence of series of determined events is unpredictable (Aristotle, Cournot); in Epicureanism such indeterminism was applied to mental events and specifically to acts of will—the doctrine then assumes the special form: some acts of will are unmotivated. A striking example of a more general accidentalism is Charles Peirce’s Tychism

tychism        a term derived from the Greek, Tyche, fortune, chance, and employed by Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914) to express any theory which regards chance as an objective reality, operative in the cosmos. Also, the hypothesis that evolution occurs owing to fortuitous variations

destiny         future necessity; the legal outcome of actuality; divine foreordainment, or the predetermined and unalterable course of events; defined by Peirce (1839-1914) as the embodiment of generals in existence

indeterminism        theory that volitional decisions are in certain cases independent of antecedent physiological and psychological causation

free-will       the free-will doctrine, opposed to determinism, ascribes to the human will freedom in one or more of the following senses: (a) The freedom of indeterminacy is the will’s alleged independence of antecedent conditions, psychological and physiological. A free-will in this sense is at least partially uncaused or is not related in a uniform way with the agent’s character, motives and circumstances. (b) The freedom of alternative choice which consists in the supposed ability of the agent to choose among alternative possibilities of action and (c) The freedom of self-determination consisting in decision independent of external constraint but in accordance with the inner motives and ideals of the agent