Journey in being—presentation text

Anil Mitra, © 2008

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Introduction to a Journey in being. 2

Metaphysics. 3

The Universe is all being and contains all Entities, Forms, and Laws. 3

A Domain is a part of the Universe. 3

The Void is the absence of being and contains no Entity, Form or Law.. 3

Limits. 5

Human world. 5

Journey. 5

A map of the universe. 5

An ultimate picture of the universe. 5

The picture. 5

Metaphysics. 6

Being. 7

The universe. 9

Cosmology: an outline. 19

Theory of Objects. 20

Ring of ideas. 21

The human endeavor 21

Human world: individual and society. 21

Common and experimental endeavor 23

A system of modes of being and knowing. 23

Some human modes, common and experimental 24

Specific cultures and their limits. 24

Analysis of some common views and their limits: summary. 26

The journey. 26

Transformation. 27

Transformation and its goals. 27

Modes. 27

The goal of transformation. 27

Goals of being. 28

History of transformation and its theories. 28

Dynamics of being. 28

Theory. 28

The dynamics. 28

Detailed development of the dynamic. 28

Catalytic states. 29

The transformations. 29

A minimal system.. 29

The journey so far 30

Assessment; the way ahead. 30

The future. 30

Objections and counterarguments*. 30

The foundational fallacy. 31

Experience and existence. 31

Doubts about demonstration of the nature-existence of the Universe and the Void. 32

Formal problems concerning the fundamental principle. 33

Adjusting the fundamental principle and its consequences to realism.. 33

Objections not based in rationality (content or method) 34

Topics from the history of ideas*. 35

Philosophy and metaphysics. 35

Metaphysics. 36

Philosophy. 36

The problems of metaphysics. 36

The nature of the problems of metaphysics. 36

Classification of the problems of metaphysics. 37

Problems raised in the present development 37

The idea of Method. 38

Method. 38

Principles of thought and action. 39

A system of human knowledge. 40

A. Symbols and Knowledge. 40

B. The Universe. 40

C. Artifact 41

* Topics that may be omitted or mentioned in passing

Introduction to a Journey in being

personal journey, ambitions, discovery, understanding, knowing, journey, transformation, being, Universe, metaphysics

The story began with a personal journey—with ambitions of discovery in understanding and knowing. In the outcome, the idea of the journey is seen as fundamental to being. The journey emerged as one of discovery, experience and transformation of being. Discovery included that of a focused, precise and grounded view of being—A map of the universe at whose center lies a grounded and ultimate metaphysics or view of the nature of being—the terms are explained later—and, therefore, of the Universe. The metaphysics provides a framework for the experience and transformation of being

The following introduction is a quick introductory sketch


Universe, Entity, Form, Law, Domain, part, Void, absence

The Universe is all being and contains all Entities, Forms, and Laws

creator, Possibility, Actuality, mind

There is exactly one Universe. Form and mind are and must be part of the Universe

The Universe exists and can have no creator. All creation lies within the Universe

Whatever is Possible must be Actual. The Actual and the Possible are identical

Note: Logic begins to be seen as immanent in the—idea of the—Universe

A Domain is a part of the Universe

Domains exist

The Void which is the complement of the Universe in itself exists

One part of the Universe may create another

Creation, Form and Law may be imposed by one domain on another. Mind may be imported from one domain to another

The Void is the absence of being and contains no Entity, Form or Law

existence, manifest state, fundamental problem of metaphysics, individual, identity, Identity, Logic, fiction, Substance, absolute indeterminism, determinism, ultimate explanation, ultimate, depth, variety, breadth, adventure, becoming, transformation, necessity, Normal

Alternative proof of existence of the void

There is no difference between the existence and non-existence of the Void

The Void may be taken to exist

If some state of being is not accessed from what may be taken to be the Void, that non-access would be a Law of the Void

Every state of being is accessible from what may be taken to be the Void

The Void exists—and contains no Entity, Form or Law

The fundamental principle of metaphysics

The Void is equivalent to every state of being. Any state of being is equivalent to every state of being

Or—Every consistent concept or idea is realized

On Logic

More precisely—The only restriction on accessible states is Logic

This defines the concept of Logic

The principle of reference—a logic is a system or grammar that ensures that all sentences of the system have reference

Objection. Immense conclusions are made here from the concept of Logic. However, since ‘The one Law of the Universe’ or of all being defines Logic, how is it now possible to conclude anything at all from the ‘fact’ that Logic is the one Law of the Universe? Response. The motivation to the ‘definition’ was not definition per se, i.e. not the introduction of a new concept, but the possible contradictions arising from ‘the set of consistent statements…’ and the extension of Logic is at least some large set of consistent statements, i.e. the immanent and ultimate realization of the idea of logic

Cosmology begins in Logic—there are no fictions except Logical fictions. Subject to Logic, every fiction, every story, every myth, every scripture, every legend, every novel, every science, every imagination, every truth implicit in a work of art or music is real


The Universe must pass through both Void and manifest states—this explains why there is something rather than nothing and, as will be seen, implies that the fundamental problem of metaphysics is ‘What exists’

What is actual is necessary. This—our—cosmological system is necessary. Every individual is necessary; and their identities are necessary. Any limited domain recurs infinitely. There is Karma. The identity of every individual merges with the Identity. Every particle of being may interact with every other particle; this interaction can be not other than knowledge at an elementary level; the Identity is the Universe. Jesus Christ is risen from the dead in countless cosmological systems. The manifest Universe may be subject to annihilation at any time

Substance and explanation

Substance has been an immensely important concept in the history of metaphysics. From the history of thought, one important meaning of substance is that of substratum of the world—this is perhaps the most important meaning of substance in history of thought

Substance must be of the world. It is essential to the significance of substance that it be simpler than its manifestation as the world and that—the process of—manifestation as the world be deterministic. However, from the foregoing, manifestation must be absolutely indeterministic since every state is accessible from every state—including the necessarily accessed substance state. Therefore the world can have no substance in the classic sense

The Void, however, may function as substance as may every state of the world—except, however, that such substance would not be deterministic and therefore have little significance

The significance of this lack of substance is that it is not necessary to seek ultimate explanations beneath the surface of things as, e.g., in the atomic conception of matter (whose next question is ‘What lies below the atoms?’ and so on)

Thus the metaphysics that is emerging is ultimate with regard to depth but the actual depth, even though the fact is profound, is ultimately shallow

Since every state is accessible from every other state, the emerging metaphysics is implicitly ultimate with regard to variety or breadth. It is in breadth or variety that the mystery of the world lies and there lies the ultimate adventure of discovery, being and becoming or transformation of being

The Normal

The apparent conflict between the necessity of this world and the Universe as described above will be resolved via the concept of the Normal. In fact, however, there is no conflict



The only limits are Logical limits

Human world

The human endeavor is characterized by limits


The journey is* a bridge between the human and the universal


A map of the universe

picture, human endeavor, journey

An ultimate view in depth, dimension—extent and duration, and variety…

An ultimate picture of the universe

The picture

tradition, individual, culture, institution, metaphysics, empirical, philosophical discipline, occult, grounded, demonstrated, implicit view, science, myth, scripture, experience, Universal metaphysics, Metaphysics of immanence, true, criteria, novel

At one point of convergence in the journey a picture of the universe emerges

Naturally, this picture draws from tradition. However, it is not a mere drawing together of common elements of the human tradition ancient or modern—whether articulated and coherent or in collage form. The elements of tradition and what are perhaps original ideas, are wrought into something new

It is fair to say that every individual has such a picture but that the individual pictures are typically a combination of explicit elements of their own invention andor drawn from the culture and implicit elements defined by how they live their lives, their values, their commitments, and where they turn in moments of joy and crisis… The culture itself may have one or more pictures, not altogether distinct, that have explicit elements such as art, literature, scripture, myth and science and implicit elements in its institutions. There is give and take between the individual and the culture

A metaphysics in the sense used here is, roughly, an explicit conceptual but not non-empirical picture of the world and its nature. Metaphysics is the philosophical discipline whose concern is the development and grounding or foundation of such pictures. In other uses, ‘metaphysics’ refers to what is remote or occult. In the present use, no distinction is made between the immediate and the remote. The significant present distinction concerns whether the ‘picture’ that is presented is grounded or demonstrated

A writer whose explicit intent is no more than to tell a story may paint an implicit view of the world in the telling. Another writer may intend to paint an implicit picture in the telling; such pictures are metaphysical. A scientific metaphysics might be one that says that the fundamental elements of the world are the elements of science. The Biblical Genesis story is metaphysical in the present sense. A metaphysics in the present sense could be conceptual or philosophical—and might be called a philosophical metaphysics. Such a metaphysics might be entirely conceptual or, alternately, might draw some of its ideas from one or more of science, myth, scripture… It is unlikely that a metaphysics will not draw from experience but it does not follow that it will be a formulation of experience

At the core of the picture of the universe that emerges here there is an explicit metaphysics. This metaphysics, referred to as a Universal metaphysics or the Metaphysics of immanence has the following characteristics. First, there is more to this metaphysics than painting it; it is endeavored to paint only what is true and it will be seen that the criteria that determine knowledge of truth emerge together with the knowing. Second, it is ultimate—i.e., it is explicitly shown that the metaphysics is ultimate in depth and breadth (‘breadth’ and ‘depth’ are defined.) A third characteristic of the metaphysics is that it is novel. Elements of the metaphysics including some of the central insights have been glimpsed in the history of thought. However, there are new and essential elements; the picture has not been put together before in its present coherent form; the picture is demonstrated—this is new; indeed, the picture develops its methods of demonstration that are shown to be integral with content; all this permits an elaboration of the picture and application to a variety of disciplines and human activities that are ultimate—in a way that is defined and grounded—and essentially new

It is true and perhaps natural that the metaphysics that emerges is not altogether explicit but is also immanent in the emphases and interests of the developments (and in the author’s life.) An example of such an emphasis is the concern with ultimate things. Some might say that such concerns are futile and that they minimize the human condition and human problems. The counterargument has a practical side according to which the ultimate and the immediate are not distinct, that they are connected, that they illuminate one another—that the ultimate may provide meaning when no other meaning at hand. It is shown that there is a real connection between the immediate and the ultimate. Additionally, while the practical is concerned with the means of living, a view of the nature of the world provides both ultimate and immediate reasons for living. A conceptual counterargument is that the potential return on an interest in the ultimate is immense and cost is so little—10 billion dollar particle colliders are not required to be built—that it does not detract from the immediate


being, study* of being, inquiry into what exists, study of ultimate reality, study of world as a whole, study of first principles, metaphysics—emergent nature of, metaphysics—non-duality of the subject and the Object, existence, Void, Logic, Logos, Universe, Normal, Experience, doubt , Method, meaning, grammar, Object, substance, form, explanation, cosmology, mechanism, mind, journey, Human world, faith

* Science is sometimes used instead of ‘study’

A preliminary account of the sense of metaphysics used here has been given. In the present sense, the term has a variety of connotations; first according to precisely what it is that makes a study metaphysical and, second, according to the extent of what is studied

There are a number of classic ideas regarding what makes a study metaphysical—those interested in these ideas may consult the essays—Home—or other literature. Here, as already noted, it will be seen that the method and nature of the discipline and method will emerge in interaction with the investigation. Therefore, the precise nature of metaphysics will not be specified in advance of development. It is not altogether in error to attempt precision at the outset of metaphysics—the purpose of such precision may be to introduce and to instruct. However, it is a fundamental error to think that the world (the subject of metaphysical study) and metaphysics (the study of the world) are independent


experience, concept, doubt, existence, Being

Experience and concept

awareness, subjective, quality, feeling, object, immanent, reflexivity of experience

Experience may be characterized as what is felt when there is awareness—this is the meaning of ‘experience’ as used here. This meaning is used extensively in the study of mind. In the subjective awareness of a shape, a quality such as fragrance, a thought, an emotion, an intention to act, and in the feeling of one’s body in motion—in all these there is experience. In this sense experience is roughly synonymous with feeling

There are many other uses and meanings of the word ‘experience.’ These other meanings are not used here even when they intersect the present meaning

Experience may be pure experience or experience of some thing external to the experience itself. Even ‘pure’ experience has potential reference. Thus experience may be said to be conceptual. An experience is a concept and what is referred to is the object; and though distinct, the concept is often conflated with the object

The concept is not the object. However, there is something that is immanent in the world—the object—to which the concept refers (when there is no such something the idea of referring can be retained by saying that the reference is empty.) Instead of saying that what is immanent in the world is the object, it could be called the Concept. The Concept is the object of the concept. Since we are accustomed to conflating concepts and objects we can introduce clarity by writing Object instead of object; then the object would be the concept that refers to the Object. Then, concept and object are identical—they are the experience—and Concept and Object are identical—they are what are referred to in the experience. We will use this Capitalization convention extensively but not exclusively

Capitalization will also be used for special meanings as used here, e.g., the concept of logic as it emerges here will be labeled Logic; however since the meanings developed here will be ultimate and therefore immanent, the dual use of the convention will mutually affirming rather than contradictory. Thus we read laws in the natural world but what the law refers to is the Law that is immanent in the world. Similarly there is experience of form that refers to immanent Form. As long as the convention is understood there should be no confusion. When the word is the fist word in a sentence the immanent Object form is indicated by using a different format for the first letter as in the following example. Form is the idea of Form. Form is the immanent Object to which form refers… After we have become used to it—and to the meanings of words as used here—we will see that the Capitalization convention may be safely dropped

Experience and concepts are not ethereal and they do not reside in another world. Experience is reflexive, i.e. there can be experience of experience. Thus experience is capable of being subject and Object. However an experience and the experience of it are not—at all—the same even though they are of the same kind. It is not usually thought that other kinds of Objects can be both subject and Object

A doubt regarding experience

mind, science, positivism

Is there such a thing as experience? This question has been raised on many accounts including the claimed difficulty of fitting experience into a scientific world view. The position here is that there may be difficulty fitting mind into a positivist version of science—i.e. a version in which things not explicitly described in science do not exist but that there is no reason at all to subscribe to scientific positivism (which is not at all the same as an attempt to describe more and more of the world in terms of current science)

Further issues about the concept of experience are addressed in the section Objections and counterarguments*

Doubt in general

doubt, question, objection, problem, paradox, action, incomplete knowledge, outcome of action, significant doubt, dual theory-method

Numerous doubts, questions, objections, problems, and paradoxes—some of which are classic—have arisen along the way. So as to keep the development direct many of these have been placed in the separate section Objections and counterarguments*

Forward motion—action—is an immense intrinsic value that is often neglected and is important even where doubt remains. The importance of forward motion or action in the presence of incomplete knowledge arises when action is necessary and when the outcome of action is estimated to be of such value that it cannot be ignored

Some of the objections and doubts will be obviously serious while others may seem to be mere word play or even neurotic doubt. All doubts that are entertained are either easily dismissed or significant. The significant doubts should be (a) so serious as to block reliable development if not cleared, andor (b) issues whose clarification leads to significant conceptual andor methodological andor practical consequences

Later, in analyzing being, experience and existence, content or fact and method—meaning, empiric, symbol—will receive dual foundation in an ultimate and dual theory-method


name, the fallacy of foundation, reference, faithful

Existence is a name for what is there—more precisely its ‘property’ of being (there.) The fact of experience proves the fact of existence. The idea that definitions and foundations form an unending series is a fallacy—if there was no existence, this narrative would be neither written nor read—even in illusion. Still, these doubts are further addressed in what follows

When experience seems to refer to something, does it actually so refer? If there is reference is it faithful? These important doubts are also deferred


existence in entirety

Being is identical to existence, i.e., whatever exists has being. Because a ‘concept’ might have referential and non-referential parts, we might make the clarification: whatever exists in its entirety has being

Problems of the root of ‘being’ in the verb ‘to be,’ of ‘being’ as reserved for special kinds of existing thing, of distinctions in the uses of ‘being’ and ‘existing’ are deferred. It will emerge that being and existence are or may be taken to be identical and that there may be special kinds of being but that these fall under the generic notion of being as used here

The universe

all, abstract, Universal metaphysics, duality, non-duality, method, content, Local, global, Actuality, Possibility, Necessity, Universe, existence, Objects, Form, Necessary form, normal, Law, Void, state, Logic, Logos, principle of reference, logics, fundamental principle of metaphysics, Normal, form of experience, meaning, mechanism, domain, part, mind

The Universe is all being, i.e., all that exists

The concept of ‘all,’ a meaning of the term ‘abstract,’ and the origin of the non-duality of method and content

paradox, empirical, empiric-rationalism

There is a concrete sense of ‘all’ that refers to everything-in-all-details. It is well known that too encompassing a use of ‘all’ harbors paradox. The all-encompassing use does not—even—have definite meaning for there is no definite specification of all-in-all-its-details but even given one such specification then, if ‘all’ has more than a few parts, the number of re-compositions is much larger

However, in ‘the Universe is all being,’ all is used in a rather abstract sense that does not recognize detail. It is important to be clear about the meaning of abstract. While ‘abstract’ often has the connotation of remoteness of the concept from the object, here it denotes something that is profoundly close to the object, profoundly empirical. Here the meaning of ‘all’ is the meaning of experience in which no distinction is recognized. This is deeply empirical—it is the original empiric and it is only formally that it is recognized as a concept. Here resides the source of what will be elaborated as the dual empiric-rationalism of content-method. It is in the (non) dual of sense and concept that method and content arise together and are without essential or final distinction, i.e., method and content constitute a non-dual. I.e., the non-duality lies, first, in seeing them on par (as a pair) and then in seeing the pair as one

Local and global description

Existence can be taken locally, in terms of extension and duration or space and time andor other mode of difference, or globally over all space and time

Actuality, Possibility and Necessity

Usually what is not actual but possible means there is another circumstance or world in which the possible could be actual. Relative to the Universe there is no other world; what is not Actual cannot be Possible, i.e. what is Possible is and must be Actual. Of course, the Actual is Possible. Therefore, the Actual and the Possible are identical… and therefore identical to the Necessary. This meaning of the Necessary is that of necessity in some context; the usual meaning is that of necessity in all contexts. It is not clear that either meaning of necessity is necessary because each is implicit in its own sphere of discourse

The Universe exists and contains all Objects, all Form and all Law

immanent, Platonic world, sentient individual, world of mental things, world of concepts, One Universe, physical world, world of forms

While law and form are the result of reading from being, what are read from are Law and Form, i.e. law and form are concepts of Law and Form which are objects or Concepts. Thus, Law and Form are immanent in being; there is no separate world of Law and Form—no separate Logos or Platonic world. Still, law and form are immanent in another way—since the sentient individual is in the Universe; there is no separate ‘mental world’ or world of concepts. There are Forms and there are mental processes and objects but they are very much Objects that reside in the one Universe

Later, Forms will be seen to be abstract objects… but there will be seen to be no essential distinction between abstract and particular or ‘concrete’ objects

It is possible to talk as if there is more than one world—for example the physical world defined by the physics of today and its known consequences, and another world of forms, and yet another world of mental things. However, these are lesser modes of speech in contrast to the ultimate mode of one world—One Universe. Shortly, the significance of the idea that there is one Universe will be strengthened

There is no actual or existing thing outside the universe

The Void exists and contains no Object—no Law, and no Form

The Void is the absence of being; therefore, if it exists, it contains no Object—no Law, no Form. The Void appended to the Universe is the Universe; therefore it makes no difference whether the Void exists. So it may be said validly: the Void exists and contains no Object—i.e., no Form or Law

Every non-contradictory State of Being exists

If from the Void a state of being that involved no contradiction did or could not exist, that would be a Law. Therefore, every non-contradictory State of Being exists

The only universal Law is the Law of Logic

Law of Logic, Logic

More succinctly, no contingent Law is universal. There is one law: it is the Law of Logic. This does not derive from other conceptions or realizations of logic—it defines Logic

Logos, Logic and Universe

An ultimate view of the Universe—only Logical limits obtain. The Logos is the universe according to Logic. The Universe is the Logos

Metaphorically, the word is the world

The ultimate conception of Logic

The Logic is immanent in the Logos or Universe. All principles of logic are subject to doubt except this—for the immanence of Logic in Logos is the concept of Logic… and on account of the fundamental principle and its consequences below it is the ultimate concept of Logic

The principle of reference. The logics

principle of reference, logics

From the immanence of Logic it follows that the ultimate principle of Logic is the principle of reference that the concept of Logic is defined by reference or, in greater detail:

Logic (Logos) is the Universe and therefore, trivially, refers to the Universe. Regarding its realizations—the logics—every element of a logic should have reference and no element should refer to the non-existent

From this flows all other conceptions and realizations—the logics—of Logic

The fundamental principle of metaphysics

fundamental principle of metaphysics

The fundamental principle of the emerging Universal metaphysics:

The only fictions are Logical fictions, i.e. the candidate facts that do not satisfy the principle of Logic

Some consequences of the fundamental principle

Some consequences of the fundamental principle may seem to be absurd. Some may appear to violate common andor scientific notions of reality. These concerns will be resolved later

The following consequences of the fundamental principle are representative of the dimensions of its reach and show its power

First, a summary of consequences. Cosmology. The consequences include the vastness of the universe, recurrence of all local events, annihilation of the manifest universe, existence of the void, the immense variety of being, the fact of Karma, the fact of Jesus Christ and the miracles. Substance is untenable and unnecessary. There is no substance and no need for substance—i.e. foundations of being lie in the Void or any state of being. Ultimate character of the metaphysics. The emerging Ultimate or Universal metaphysics or metaphysics of immanence is ultimate in breadth and depth, the Universe must pass through every actual and possible state and this includes resolution of the question sometimes called the fundamental problem of metaphysics ‘why there must be something’ rather than nothing, origins may be single or multiple stage. Objects. The character of the Object was set up in discussing experience. Particular and abstract objects. The character and foundation of particular and abstract objects is now developed. Character of particular and abstract Objects. The distinction between particular and abstract objects vanishes in light of the principle of reference that every consistent concept has an Object. It is not characteristic of abstract objects that they are intangible or exist outside space. Logic is an object. An essential list of particular and abstract Objects

The consequences now follow


recurrence, manifest universe, substance, fiction, karma, miracle

Also see Origins below

Substance and explanation

substance, explanation, determinism, absolute indeterminism, absolute determinism, infinite regress, foundation, non-relativist philosophy, ultimate depth, transparent, superficial explanation, fundamental problem of metaphysics


saltation, incremental emergence, variation, selection

Theory of Objects

theory of Objects, Kantian theory, necessary Objects, Particular object, abstract Object, partial Object, full Object, genera, instance, Mathematical Object, Universal, Value

Cosmology. Anything is possible! There are infinitely many cosmological systems and more. The laws of this cosmos are violated in the large and over relatively great times; and in the small. Every local actuality recurs infinitely in all dimensions of extension (including duration and spatial extension.) The manifest universe is subject to annihilation at any time. The Void exists… and contains no Object, or Law, or Form. Every state of being, including the Void, is equivalent to every other state of being. Note that it is manifest in the foregoing that metaphysics and cosmology intersect—in their broad meanings they have identity of concept but are distinguished by their interest. Substance—substance is untenable and unnecessary. Thus there is no substance. Ultimate character of the metaphysics—depth—the fundamental principle. Every Logical fiction is Actual; i.e., there are no fictions. Ultimate character—breadth. Subject to Logic, every legend, every myth, every literal scripture is true and, if local, is true with infinite recurrence. There is karma—as fact. Jesus Christ and the actual miracles—those that do not harbor violation of reference—repeat infinitely; this of course does not imply that occurrence on this earth; in later vocabulary Jesus Christ may be seen as an abstract object. Substance—continued—and the question of determinism. Because no simple, worldly, kind with deterministic behavior can generate variety, there is no ultimate substance or essence of any kind or mode; except the Void or any state of being can be seen as substance but this violates the implicit deterministic aspect of substance—substance or essence and determinism are duals; the thought shows, also, that there is no need for substance… and, here, it may be observed that Heidegger’s repudiation of substance was incomplete in that he did not reject the deterministic side of substance for substance and determinism are duals… which aspect—i.e., determinism—of ‘substance thinking’ may be seen to be rampant—because of its practical utility despite its ultimate invalidity and misdirection—in human thought and habits of thought. Absolute indeterminism and absolute determinism are identical. The Universe is absolutely indeterministic in that no state is inaccessible from any state; it is absolutely deterministic in that every state is accessed from every state—which determinism is not a determinism in the usual sense of a given linear temporal sequence. Ultimate character of the emerging  metaphysics. The metaphysics that is emerging, named the Universal metaphysics or Metaphysics of immanence is an ultimate metaphysics. It is ultimate with regard to depth in that it eliminates any need for substance—in that the Void or any state can function as substance—in that it provides an ultimate foundation for the understanding of being without substance or infinite regress—in that this foundation is, as will be seen, empirical and therefore rational, i.e., the traditional distinction empirical / rational breaks down in the light of the metaphysics—in that every other foundation must be contained in it—and finally in that it is a non-relativist philosophy that requires no substance which is contradictory to the strong tradition of thought that only relativist and unfounded systems can do without substance. Although of ultimate depth, the metaphysics is also transparent and shallow; there is no need for explanation in terms of something behind the surface. The metaphysics is also implicitly ultimate with regard to breadth or variety in that every Actual object—whether particular or abstract—lies in its Object; the breadth is implicit in that this does not imply that the metaphysics can be used to specify every Actuality. No contradiction with common knowledge, science or—valid—common sense. All actual Objects must exist, i.e. they could not have not existed. This cosmological system is necessary. Every faithfully known actuality must exist. This does not explain origins. The universe must pass through every actual state (tautology.) The universe must pass through a state of being the Void; and from the Void there must come every Possible and Actual state. This resolves what has been called the fundamental problem of metaphysics and what may therefore be called the primitive fundamental problem—the problem of why there is being, why there is something rather than nothing… and reveals that the true fundamental problem of metaphysics is the question of what exists. Origins may occur in one step—this follows from the fundamental principle (distinct from the fundamental problem.) Alternatively they may occur in multiple steps via variation and selection—where what is selected is by definition a relatively stable and, as will be seen, near symmetric form. Objects and the theory of Objects. The character of the Object was set up in discussing experience, used informally above, and is now formally developed. The Kantian theory sets up the nature of the Object and the present metaphysics confirms the theory in an absolute sense provided that the meaning of faithfulness is allowed to remain implicit and given that absolute faithfulness is Logically impossible and therefore undesirable in all cases. I.e., the lack of absolute faithfulness is a fundamental source of meaning. However it has been seen that there are necessary Objects—Being, All, and so on—that frame the metaphysics and that, given the undesirability of absolute faithfulness regarding the contingent Objects, they, too, have foundation in the metaphysics. Particular and abstract Objects. Since every consistent concept must have reference, the distinction between particular or concrete and abstract objects breaks down, i.e., while there may be distinctions such as partial and full (Objects,) and genera and instance, there is no categorial distinction of particular and abstract. Character of particular and abstract Objects. What is called ‘particular’ is suited to empirical study; what is called ‘abstract’ is suited to symbolic study; lying behind this distinction is the principle of reference. Number and Euclidean Geometry, for example, begin as particular objects, i.e. early in their history, but it is then found that they are most powerfully amenable to study in symbolic terms—they ‘become’ abstract; the non-absoluteness of the distinction is underlined by the bringing back of mathematics into the semi-empirical domain by the computer assisted proof of a number of fundamental theorems. Logic is an Object; that is, Logic is defined by the principle of reference. These reflections make analysis easier by clarifying the conceptual side of various abstract mathematical and logical objects; however empirical problems remain regarding, for example, actual infinities and the meanings of actual infinities… and other abstract concepts. This shows that abstract objects do not exist outside space (or time) but, rather, that their being in or outside extension is, according to the case, partly or totally irrelevant to their being. Similarly, the immanence of reference shows that abstract objects are not characteristically intangible. It is only the incomplete prior understanding of abstract objects that renders them apparently intangible and not resident in space (or time.) Sources of abstract character. Mathematical Objects are those whose form is simple enough to be capable of symbolic study and sufficiently universal to be usefully applicable. It is often thought that mathematical proficiency is a fortuitous result of other proficiencies that are adaptive. It is not clear that this is altogether true, first, because, as the principle of reference reveals, mathematical and physical intuition are not disjoint and, second, especially though hypothetically in that mathematical ability is not universal it may have been selected for in cultural adaptation. Universals have an abstract character in that they are generalizations of aspects of particulars; in fact, universals now appear to be a cross of particular and abstract aspects. Values are abstract in that they are not present actual Objects but preferred potential Objects whose preference is determined by some combination of adaptation, adapted-ness, and intuition-symbolic process. An essential list of particular and abstract Objects. Being, the Universe, Difference, the modes of difference, Domain, Complement, Entity-Process, the Void… are particular objects. Relation, property, form, mathematical objects, value, morals, ethics, truth… may be regarded as abstract. An Entity as entity—as distinct from entity-process—is abstract

The foregoing thoughts show the immense and profound depth of the fundamental principle

Resolving apparent absurdities and paradoxes. The concept of the ‘normal’

However, they also reflect an apparent absurdity. Many cosmological systems beyond this one—this is not so absurd after all but is a thought from modern physical cosmology; there is a difference in that here the collection of systems that make up the Universe obeys no Law except Logic. Anything is possible! Not quite; the principle of Logic requires that known facts may not be violated—the existence of this cosmos and all its seeming laws and limits. However, what of Karma and an abstract Jesus Christ that is an infinity of actual ones? The apparent absurdity is resolved via a conception of the normal which is defined here and loosely related to but otherwise independent of other conceptions (and therefore not subject to any objection ‘but what is ‘normal’?’) We leave the meaning of ‘normal’ somewhat implicit; it distinguishes the world as it appears, including its stabilities and ephemeralities, from the world as it is, i.e. as revealed by the necessity of the fundamental principle. The normal is related but not identical to the probable and is, no doubt, realized differently in different circumstances and, additionally, relative to what is known

Properties of the Void

Any void generates every void. It is irrelevant whether the number of voids is taken to be infinite, finite but greater than one, or just one. The number of voids may be taken to be one. It may be said that—

There is one and only one Void

From every state, including the void state, every other state is accessible i.e. no state is inaccessible

The universe is equivalent to the void

The universe enters—and leaves—a state of being the void

Although the concept of the Void does not satisfy the requirements of the classic notion of substance, except for the requirement of determinism, the Void may trivially play the role of universal substance. However there is no gain in taking the Void to be the Substance

Relative to the concept of substance, the Void is ultimately simple. The Void does not appear to be simple because of its absolute indeterminism and related features—although it is characterized by absence, all entities, laws and forms may be seen as potential in it. This, however, is appearance but not actual non-simplicity; if the Void were deterministic it would be a necessary non-simplicity; the habit of deterministic thinking, then, makes the Void complex. On this account, then, the Void is supremely simple. However, the simplicity just referred to is simplicity of fact. The simplicity of the Void is essentially conceptual and lies in there being no assumptions of substance being built into the Void; instead any substance-like features of the Void emerge from the necessity of the Void and its concept


Although there is no—deterministic—substance there is Form. There are forms in experience. Except contradiction, these forms must be realized—by the fundamental principle

Necessary forms

However, the forms ‘all’ and ‘absence’ are necessary in that they did not require the fundamental principle for their being. This was at the empiric-rational foundation of the Universal metaphysics. There are other necessary forms such as difference, perhaps mode or dimension of difference such as extension and duration, domain and complement…

The forms of experience and their foundation

principle of adaptation, Dynamic Form

The other forms of experience, e.g. the external world, the identity of the Individual, space and time, everyday entities, although they need no practical foundation, require, if foundation were needed, the fundamental principle to establish their being. Their being is established otherwise by a principle of adaptation which follows from our ability to negotiate the world—without some faithfulness no negotiation would be possible. The fine faithfulness of some objects such as space and time and physical law is a contingent characteristic of this world—however, given the fine acuity of visual perception it is not surprising that the laws of light and more generally of electromagnetic radiation are simple and define their Object with precision. Generally, faithfulness is sufficient faithfulness. Further, faithfulness is implicit, without ‘external’ mooring, and not universal over all our presumed facts. This faithfulness is the faithfulness of the Kantian intuition extended by symbolic language and is the result of being adapted to the world and includes the case of non-separation of concept and action and immersion in the world. Thus there are Forms; and this includes the Dynamic Form. The relation between form and Form, between concept and Concept / object, is that faithfulness is absolute but trivial for the necessary Forms and imprecise and implicit but non-trivial for the contingent forms. There is a famous quote due to Einstein that says something similar (to the effect that certain knowledge is not about the world and knowledge about the world is not certain) but is distinct from the present case in that even the contingent forms have a necessary aspect

Roughly, the word is immanent in the world

Method and meaning

method, meaning, grammar, logics, potential objects

It is evident that the terms ‘method’ and ‘meaning’ are significant. So far, these terms have been used informally. It is now possible to introduce useful formal considerations of method and meaning

In the way that method and metaphysics arise together it is evident that they are not completely separable

It is first seen that there are necessary forms of experience—being, all being, difference, domain, absence… The understanding lies in the empiric extended by symbolic description

These contain the seeds of the metaphysics but do not have recourse to the metaphysical system

The Kantian analysis, justified by adaptation, extends via implicit and sufficient faithfulness to the other forms of experience

This results in the concept of the Object that encompasses objects and potential objects

Logic is an Object. Since its conception is implicit, the logics are open to discovery

Meaning is originally moored in the empiric-logic, i.e. in use; secondary terms may be defined in terms of the primary

Completed meaning requires a completed metaphysics. Ultimate meaning is possible only with regard to an ultimate metaphysics. A completed and ultimate metaphysics is available with regard to depth

In the discovery of this metaphysics, meaning is in flux; it starts in use and the common system of secondary terms; it lies in system, not just individual words; as illustrative of this point, metaphysics and meaning reside in grammar; net meaning is distributed with some arbitrariness among the system of word-concepts

The metaphysics is ultimate with regard to breadth as well but only implicitly so. Therefore the emergence of meaning in the discovery of variety remains in flux; it may be completed in a particular direction if / when discovery in that direction is complete; knowledge of completed meaning requires demonstration of completed discovery

The understanding of the system developed here crucially requires attention to these reflections on method and meaning and, more specifically, to the meanings that emerge here. Although most of the significant terms are common, their present meanings are often uncommon; in all cases, the common meaning must be set aside and attention paid to the present meaning even when it may happen to be coincident with any common meaning

Resolution of the apparently alien character of the Universal metaphysics


In addition to an apparent absurdity, now resolved, the Universal metaphysics appears to be separate or alien to our day-to-day experience and its codification in intuition, institution and culture. However, the alienation is resolved in seeing the normal remoteness of the Universal metaphysics but otherwise its connection via the empiric-rationality of experience. Also, in humor-as-adjustment-to-the-unexpected, the individual has a category whereby he or she can appreciate behavior that lies outside the normal realm


contingent form, incremental origin, variation, selection, saltation, relatively stable, symmetry, perfect symmetry, near symmetry, dynamics

Mechanism is a contingent form. More precisely the normal mechanism of incremental origination by variation and selection is contingent. As part of the normal world, such mechanism is infinitely more likely than saltation or single step origins. However, it is undoubtedly normal that saltation and incremental change mix. In the normal case what is selected is relatively stable as a result of near but not perfect symmetry. Although Logically Possible, perfect symmetry is frozen. Dynamics is determined by symmetry / near symmetry; and therefore, local dynamics, and origins are interwoven though not identical

Essential unitary character of the Universe

Since every ‘particle’ of being can interact with every other particle and does so except for Logic, the one Universe is truly One

Some cosmological conclusions from the concept of Universe or all being and domain or part

creator, space, time, space-time, absolute, relative, origin of space and time, patchwork, signal speed, matter

For the Universe as a whole—there can be no creator that is external to the Universe; space and time or space-time must be immanent in it, i.e. relative and not absolute—however the space and time of a domain may be absolute; there is no Universal space and time; there can be multiple times in the sense of highly and weakly coordinated times, space and time may have a dual origin and be a patchwork with regard to large and small scales and there need be no Universal signal speed; due to the dual and embedded origin, space, time, actuality or matter are not independent but may achieve local independence


mind, feeling, experience, relation, higher mind, consciousness, dim consciousness, bright consciousness, awareness, pan-psychism, Unity of Consciousness, object constancy, unity of consciousness

Experience or feeling, i.e., mind is a relation and must be immanent in being down to its elements; higher mind is a manifestation of this; the unconscious is either potentially or dimly conscious; normal consciousness is bright consciousness; conscious is a continuum that presents in bright consciousness as on-off; higher consciousness is the layering of elementary feeling; this is not a pan-psychism in the sense of human or animal type minds immanent in being—any more than we would think of materialism as being the realization of bricks and Eiffel Towers as immanent in the elements; the fundamental principle requires Karma and, beyond Karma, the disunity of consciousnesses in the Unity of Consciousness

The phenomena of object constancy and unity of consciousness have explanation in adaptation, e.g. origins

The normal case

Many of these Universal Necessities break down in the normal case where a cosmos can have a creator, space and time can be either absolute or relative and ‘universal’ and there may be a ‘universal’ signal speed, identity may be discrete; and there may be a practical distinction between the feeling and the inert

On the Universal metaphysics

The universal metaphysics is ultimate with regard to depth and variety of being

It clears away millennia of diversionary substance theory and centuries of confusion regarding the mind-body ‘problem’ and the nature of the empirical and the necessary

It provides a foundation for being that is non relativist but that requires no substance

Thus the depth is shallow even though ultimate. Stated another way there is no looking beneath a surface to find the nature and foundation of being. The foundation is to be found in the analysis of experience and its necessary elements that are simultaneously intensely empirical and rational

In consequence of the ultimate depth of the metaphysics it is also possible to raise the understanding of the following disciplines to an ultimate level: theory of Objects, Logic, study of mind, and Cosmology. Specific disciplines, e.g. the study of the Human world, are limited only by the clarity of the concept

The metaphysics reveals an infinite and unlimited variety—more precisely, the variety is limited only by Logic. The only fictions are the Logical fictions. Thus, as seen earlier in detail, Universe is revealed to be infinitely more varied and of infinitely greater extent in extension and duration than any given conception. At the same time, the metaphysics requires the facts of our being in this cosmological system

It will be seen that the metaphysics also sheds light on the Human world where the related disciplines may be raised to a level that is ultimate relative to the necessities of that world. The Universal metaphysics shows new dimensions of possibility for faith. It also reveals a world of infinite possibility for human being

It is expected that the vastness, novelty and simplicity of the view that emerges will give some audiences difficulties of understanding the view in itself and in relation to the world as commonly understood. These difficulties may be overcome by attention to the development of argument and meaning

Cosmology: an outline

Here is a convenient point to organize earlier developments of the ideas of Cosmology

The concept

variety, particulars, abstract objects

Cosmology is the study the variety of being

Variety includes particular entities which includes thing, relationship, process, origins and ends; and abstract objects including the mathematical and logical objects as well as the ethical such as value and justice. Truth straddles the ethical and the actual


fundamental principle, the normal, fiction, identity, karma, Jesus Christ, recurrence, annihilation


process, determinism, indeterminism, causation, dynamics, mechanism, adaptation, variation, selection, incremental, saltation

Space, time and being

Local / physical cosmology

There are clear mutual implications among the Universal metaphysics and the study of the physics of the local cosmological system including the study of the fundamental forces, force—gravitation-matter-space-time, and the quantum vacuum and quantum theory

Such studies have not yet been taken up but may be an aspect of the ‘experiments’

The present development has considered implications for the extent of the Universe, the origin of the laws of this cosmos and their non-universal character, the non-origination and non-ending of the Universe, recurrence, annihilation, the relative character of any space-time for the entire Universe, the necessity of both relative and absolute space-times for local systems, the possibility but general improbability of saltational origins of local cosmological systems, the incomplete loss of information in transitions through the Void state, universal interaction, the origins—and possibility and meaning of origins—of laws and space-time, and the non-universal character of speed of propagation of forces

Theory of Objects

Object, theory of Objects, ultimate, empirical, rational, particulars, abstract objects

Particular Objects

thing, relationship, process, property, Jesus Christ, instance of a recurrent abstract Object, Universal, Truth, origins, ends

Abstract Objects

mathematical Object, Logic, Logical Object, Jesus Christ, recurrent Object, Universal, Truth, Ethical Object, value, justice

A conception with an ultimate and empirical—recall that in the present notion, the empirical includes the rational—foundation of the Object has been presented above

The development includes the following

A foundation of the nature of things or entities and knowledge of things in the concept of the Object

That the notion of entity or thing includes particular as well as abstract objects

That particulars may be seen as including what are thought of as concrete objects as well as part, relationship, process, and universal which includes property and which straddles the distinction between the particular and the abstract—which straddling, on the traditional account of the distinction, would be paradoxical but on the present account is not

That there is no actual distinction of the particular and the abstract; the distinction is one of whether the most convenient method of study is empirical (in the limited empiricist interpretation of deriving from bare sense data) or symbolic. The abstract objects are not inherently intangible or non-resident in space. As noted, some objects such as universals straddle the distinction between the particular and the abstract

The variety of objects and process and origins and ends are the subject of cosmology

The fundamental concept of the metaphysics

Since the Object straddles being as well as knowing and mode of being, it is perhaps the essential concept of the development. There are, however, a number of other concepts such as experience, being, all, absence, that are associated with original insight

Another fundamental insight is the sense in which there are no particular original insights but it is being-in-the-world which includes the here and now and the ultimate and being-in-process that are fundamental

Ring of ideas

The following ring of ideas encapsulates the logic of the development

Note that Kantian, action, and immersion objects may be conflated to the Kantian. Make and remark the conflation

Experience / concept—necessary objects—existence—metaphysics: all, void, part—object: necessary, Kantian, action, immersion—method—meaning—particular—abstract—mind—object catalog—cosmology—human world—transformation

The human endeavor

common, experimental, limits, problems, possibilities

human being, social world, civilization, state-of-the-world, history, faith

choice, charisma, action

Here are given some characterizations of the human endeavor; a more comprehensive treatment is available in the essays—Home

Human world: individual and society

The first distinction is that of individual and society

Human being

freedom, action, choice, commitment, absolute freedom, natural law, individual form, culture, society, feeling, element of experience, intensity, quality, body-feeling, primitive emotion, sensory feeling, bonding, perception, attitude, bound-free dimension, memory, pure experience, icon, symbol, integration, emotion-motivation-cognition, categories, consciousness, bright consciousness, unconscious, dim consciousness, self-reference, awareness of awareness, focus awareness, on-off, apparent, awareness without experience, apparent, language, speech, dual function, expression, communication, memory, written form, preservation, symbolic representation

The individual has the important characteristic of freedom of choice and action whose non-trivial expression requires effort and commitment and that is not absolute freedom but stands in balance with various necessities of natural law, individual form and tying in to culture and society. A second characteristic is feeling that is the element of experience or mind and has the dimensions of intensity, quality, body-feeling including primitive emotion and external-sensory feeling, bonding in perception or ‘attitude’ and action to world and individual versus freedom in potential, bound-free dimension and memory, e.g. pure experience, memory and memory-processing, icon and symbol, integration as emotion-motivation-cognition; the hyphenation indicates not just un-separation but inseparability, e.g. cognition is feeling-is carried of necessity by unnamed motivating feeling-and inspired by named emotion which in turn is an integration but with an obviously different primary component; see The modes below for categories. Normal consciousness is bright consciousness; the unconscious is dim consciousness or feeling. The higher human modes are elaborations and layering. Bright consciousness does not require self-reference but such reference enhances brightness in the ability to be aware of awareness and to focus awareness… and it is—likely—this that accounts for the apparent on-off character of consciousness in the living individual. Apparent awareness without experience is generally dim awareness without awareness of awareness that, if not too dim, may enter into acute awareness. Language, treated in detail in the essays—Home—begins with the dual function of expression and communication which expands, in memory and the written form, to preservation. The ability to manipulate the environment is enhanced by symbolic representation and preservation

Social world

society, institution, group, lineage group, family, kinship, culture, cultural group, actual group, functional group, city, university, hospital, bank, regulatory agency, church… institution, culture, modes of knowing, institutions of knowledge, creation, preservation, transmission, discovery, representation, storage, education, factual and conceptual knowledge, factual, conceptual, value, moral, know-how, human freedom, trade, practice, know how, group process—institutions of, economic, resource, material, cultural, psychic, trade, deposit of security, note of agreement or contract—i.e. money, moral-legal code, judiciary, church, opinion, military, law-enforcement, politic

Society is characterized by institutions and groups that are themselves institutions such as family, kinship; fixed and functional groups regarding the institutions—especially those that follow that include, e.g., cities, universities, hospitals, banks, regulatory agencies, churches… Institutions include culture which encompasses the modes of knowing and is fundamental to the institutions. Other institutions include the institutions of knowledge—creation, preservation and transmission, i.e., discovery, representation and storage, and education. Knowledge includes factual and conceptual knowledge, value and morals which are required to balance destructive expression of human freedoms, enhance the creative and constructive, and a variety of implicit forms such as those of trades and practices and other less formal aspects of ‘know how.’ Institutions relating to group process include the political which is the group decision process, moral-legal codes that may be seen as channeling of behavior toward both efficient and moral ends and whose practical modes of expression are not restricted to force, e.g. judiciary, church, opinion, military, law enforcement, and the economic or the feasible organization and processing of resources of all kinds—material, cultural, psychic, trade, deposit of security, note or token of agreement or contract, i.e. money—to individual and social ends


civilization, society, culture, identity, continuity, connection, animal, extra-cosmological

The idea of Civilization employed here is that of the Identity or continuity of—all—human societies and cultures. From the fundamental principle, no society or culture is excluded. When a layer of cloud envelopes the lower part of a mountain range, the high peaks that appear isolated are joined below the cloud surface by land. This picture of connection is roughly analogous to the present view of Civilization

The fundamentals of the concept of Civilization do not at all exclude other animals or cultures alien to our cosmos, i.e. extra-cosmological cultures

The state of our civilization

This point which is to be developed includes history and the state-of-the-world


Developed below—noted here for continuity with essay versions

Common and experimental endeavor

common, norm, adaptedness, stability, adaptability, experimental, adapting, decay, competition, changing circumstance, construction, creation

Human activity may be classed as common or that of the norm and experimental or that of active departure from the norm. There are tensions between the common and the experimental but both are necessary—the common as expression of adaptation or adaptedness and stability and the experimental as expression of adapting and necessary to avoid decay, deal with competition and negotiate changing circumstances… these include construction and creation

A system of modes of being and knowing


nature, society, psyche, universal, physical, living, intuitive, symbolic-cultural, group, social

Consider a distinction according to the categories of nature, society, psyche and the universal or unknown (NSPU.) The following may be equivalent: physical, the living, the intuitive and the symbolic-cultural. The physical and the living cover the natural; the intuitive is in the sense of Kant and includes the unconscious and together with the symbolic covers psyche; the living includes the group or the social whose communication is intuitive-symbolic; and the universal and the unknown are implicit in intuition, symbol and culture

The modes

action, tacit-immanent, knowing, representing, relating, communicating, casual, formal, categories, existential, humor, creativity, physical, biological, psychosocial, idea, intuition-symbol

Natural—physical and biological


Intuition-symbol—tacit-immanent versus symbolic-cultural

Symbolic—representing versus communication or knowing versus relating; and casual versus formal; the formal includes the empirical-rational

A system of intuitive-symbolic categories: the existential including humor and creativity, physical, biological, and psychosocial. A reduced system might be Object and Humor—where Object has affinities with given Object and Humor with potential Object

Common or established and or putative versus the experimental

The common is often established as a result of adaptation characterized by casual expression and the tacit; these forms arise organically from the origins and are conducive of stability

The experimental emphasizes the explicit and therefore the formal; and is established by trial and error

The distinction between the common and the experimental is not absolute and they dovetail and interact; there are continuities in content and significance; they are part of one-process; thus although the original establishment of the common was and remains

Some human modes, common and experimental

animal, primal holism, myth, legend, Religion, religion, meaning function, non-meaning function, Science, science, secular humanism, literature, sacred text, drama, ritual, music, art, architecture, sacred form, space, philosophy, metaphysics, scripture, unnamed ideational form

The animal

Primal holism—myth-legend, intuition and science

Religion / religion

Science / science

Secular humanism

In the following, terms in brackets note the archaic or religious counterparts of the secular or modern

Literature (sacred text;) drama (ritual,) music—and suspension of judgment and promotion of flow; art—including drawing, painting, and ornament and sculpture—and architecture (sacred form and space;) philosophy and metaphysics (scripture on the nature of world, society, institution and morals)

Specific cultures and their limits

Early religion, myth and science…

Insofar as these are flowing, limits are tacit


history, cosmology, picture of the world, inspiration, awe, ethic, code of behavior, myth, archaic cosmology, social bonding, attitude, story, metaphor, secular notion of death, religions of the hunter-gatherers, moored in the environment, expression, literal expression, non-literal, Religion—ideal, negotiation of all being by all modes

The classic religions have histories—e.g. of the people, cosmologies or pictures of the world—that may be pointed at awe or behavior or beauty rather than ‘neutral’ description; ethics or codes of behavior; myths or stories that weave the foregoing with inspiration

The obvious limits of religion concern the archaic cosmologies. However, in the origins the point—adaptedness whether intended or not—to the cosmologies may have been to promote social bonding, attitude, and behavior—andor story—rather than description or representation. Thus Heaven and Hell and, more particularly, the rising from the dead tell metaphorically of the limitation of the secular notion of death—making explicit the implicit story always has the element of hypothesis. That such cosmologies become word has an undoubted political component including neutral or benign bonding. The religions of the hunter-gatherers are relatively moored in the natural-social environment; the religion of the agriculturalists who are revealed as true uprooted ‘nomads’ tends to lack mooring in context. There may be limitations to the explicit and implicit morals of religions due to issues of context and changing context. Clearly, religion has function—whose expression is often non-literal and may be done disservice by literal expression or interpretation—and limit

The distinction—Religion versus religion. The religions are the actual religions. Here, Religion refers not to the object but to an ideal form—Religion as the negotiation of all being by all modes available to the individual and the group

Secular humanism, science and their limits

secular humanism, ascent of science, demise of religion, primary authority, the real, thought, science, literature, art, music, drama, technology, human psyche—possibilities, possibilities of the—human—psyche, natural world, natural limits, fiction, human feeling, limits on feeling, relationship, psychology, expression, feeling, behavior, authenticity

Primary sources of secular humanism lie in the ascent of science and the demise of religion as the source of a primary authority regarding the real… and in the search for a replacement of the religious or spiritual function in secular elements of culture—thought, science, literature, art, music, drama, and technology

Science is but one dimension of secular humanism; another dimension lies in the possibilities of the—human—psyche. With regard to the external world, however, science tends to define the limits of secular humanism. Even with regard to the psyche, science is thought to define two kinds of limit. First, the psyche is part of the natural world—everyone else’s psyche is part of the external world and therefore so is mine. And, second, while fiction may explore, for example, the subtleties of human feeling and relationship, here too there are limits that are thought to be defined by science, e.g., Freudian psychology. One may, of course, disagree with Freud as science but surely there are some limits to the psyche that result in limits to expression, feeling and behavior. ‘Fiction’ that does not respect—or seriously explore—such limits is experienced as inauthentic

The limits of science

science, limit, ultimate limit, methodologically and conceptually different, limits of current science, limits to psychology, limits to biology, self-defined limits to physics, limits imposed by the Universal metaphysics

Therefore, it is important to explore the limits of science. The first kind of limit to science is the ultimate limit. Are there any areas of knowledge that are ultimately off bounds to science? It is important that the science of the future may, in addition to discovery of new facts and introduction of new concepts and laws, be methodologically and conceptually different from the science of today, e.g., while there are commonalities among physical and biological science, there are also differences of method. Even though it seems unlikely, there may be new, as yet unrecognized, subject matters. It seems reasonable to think that if something is definitely knowable it should be knowable scientifically even though the ‘science’ by which it is known and it method and its expression may be yet un-thought. Perhaps, one day, formal science and mathematics may equal human intuition even though the work of Gödel suggests that there are limits to formal systems. In any case, formal thought and formal systems are not a substitute for living experience

A second kind of limit concerns the limits of current science. It is clear that psychology and sociology are far from complete—and it is not clear that they will ever approach the definiteness of the natural sciences. The contours of biology may be thought to be complete but they are probably not complete relative to all possible life forms—as revealed by the Universal metaphysics. It is clear that modern psychology is immensely inadequate as a science of the necessary transformations of Identity. Modern physics defines its own limits. Its laws are known to be inadequate beyond a certain threshold of energy-extension-duration. Recently there is again doubt regarding the application of the firmest model of cosmology—the inflationary big-bang theory—within the cosmos; beyond the cosmos… theory and experiment are inadequate to suggest whether there is a beyond and, if there is, what it is like—there is speculation about bubble universes. However, Universal metaphysics reveals that there is an infinite beyond with regard to remote time and place and the most intimate time-space—that of the very small. Although Universal metaphysics reveals that there is an infinite and unending variety—there are no fictions except Logical fictions—it does not tell us the relation of these nearby and distant worlds to this world

These limits of science, therefore, indicate extreme limits to secular humanism. There is of course enormous room within the secular and the feeling aspect of the spirit; but this room is still limited. There is therefore room for an ideational form, whose name may be religion or science or otherwise, whose contours or limits are those of the Universal metaphysics

The future of the ideational form

‘Religion,’ ‘science,’ ‘secular humanism’… versus unnamed ideational form


Political, economic…

Analysis of some common views and their limits: summary

It is seen that there are serious limits revealed by the human modes themselves and the Universal metaphysics

These limits apply to the common and much of the experimental; to much of the tacit and the formal; and to the modern, the historical, and the archaic

And there is infinite room for discovery and journey

The journey

universe, self, identity, experience, connection, immediate, universal, realization of the ultimate, idea, discovery, transformation, being-identity, personal—expression of and essential to the universal, shared, ultimate significance, journey—necessity of, journey—character of

Experiencing and connecting the immediate and the universal—character and necessity of the journey

Ideas / discovery and transformation / being-identity

Personal and shared…the personal is expression of and essential to the universal

The personal is expression of and essential to the universal

Adaptation of self to the world is significant; and self-realization in this sense is therefore intrinsically significant

Limited self-realization is not unimportant to the ultimate but such self-realization may be taken to a point where it is detrimental to the ultimate

Ultimate significance, however, lies in knowledge and realization of ultimates


realization, action


Transformation and its goals


mode, idea, identity of being, physical transformation, instrument, negotiation, appreciation

The modes of transformation are idea and identity of being which includes physical transformation

Ideas are intrinsically important but realization requires transformation in being and identity. Ideas are also important as instruments of negotiation—which includes relinquishing ideas—and appreciation

The goal of transformation

determination—discovery, goal, process, knowledge, possibility, feasibility, means, ideal, moral, transformation—interaction, tradition, inner transformation, journey, full realization, ultimate, being and identity

The problem includes determination—not mere statement—of goals. Determining goals may be a process that is interactive with knowledge—of possibility, of feasibility, of means, of ideals and morals which are all interactive. The knowledge, especially the understanding of the universe and of human being, is available in the earlier topics and the traditions of knowledge

The traditions emphasize inner transformation as an end in itself and as a means to full realization

The ideas so far show no limits to possibility; they suggest what is feasible and that what is feasible is negotiable—is a function of knowledge

A goal of the transformation is the discovery and realization of ultimates in being and identity

Goals of being

appreciation, living in the present, inner transformation, intrinsic, instrumental, value, phase, means

Appreciation and living in the present and inner transformation have intrinsic and instrumental value as phases and means of transformation

History of transformation and its theories

ways, theories, hunter-gatherer, agriculturalist, modern society

Traditional ways and theories from hunter-gatherer, agriculturalist societies up till today are taken up in the essays—see Home

Dynamics of being

theory, dynamics, catalytic state


fundamental principle, human nature, possibility, limit


being, object, identity, logic, cosmology, feasibility, morals, faith

The ideas developed regarding the nature of the universe and human being—supplemented by modern and earlier tradition—provide the theory. The high point of the ideas is the fundamental principle and its consequences in interaction with an understanding of human nature, possibility and limits

The theories of being, object, identity, logic, cosmology, feasibility, morals, and Faith, supplemented by the traditions provide possibility, ambition, goals, and means (dynamics) for transformation

The dynamics

Dynamics of being, transformation, iteration, experiment, conception, action, outcome, interpretation

Dynamics of being is an approach to transformation in which, with bases in the foregoing, the following are iterated (1) experiments are conceived and acted upon, (2) outcomes are interpreted and enhanced experiments in transformation are conceived

The intent includes but is not limited to incremental negotiation of normal limits

Detailed development of the dynamic

element, desire, awareness, change, informed goal, limits, means, goals, evaluation, process, context, meta-dynamics—dynamics of dynamics, intuition, latent, reflexivity, individual, identity, world

The structure of the dynamic may be inferred from the indeterministic-selective character of the process. The process includes many other ‘methods’

Common elements emerge from examples as follows:

Desire for andor awareness of immersion in change with or without an informed goal

Experiment and evaluation of outcome—modification andor enhancement of knowledge of limits, means and goals

The process and context are now experienced as dynamic and changing

The dynamics itself becomes or is seen as dynamic (meta-dynamics) and is integrated into intuition—what is latent becomes actual, reflexivity enters awareness as an explicit tool—and is applied to being itself which includes individual, identity, and world

Catalytic states

physiological sensitivity, psychic sensitivity, receptivity, readiness

These are states of physiological and psychic sensitivity, receptivity and readiness… and are not restricted to any compartment of mind or physiology

dream, hypnotic, vision, heightened awareness, focusing, integration, cultivation, sensitivity, opportunity, idiosyncrasy

Types of state include dream, hypnotic states, vision, heightened awareness to self—including of course the unconscious—and world. Catalytic use includes focusing dreams and so on and integration in awareness; cultivation over time; sensitivity to and cultivation of opportunity and idiosyncrasy

meditation, exposure to and intuitive integration of archetypes, archetype—exposure to, archetype—intuitive integration of, dream-symbol-Art-myth-Faith, induction, contemplation, shaman, groups

Approaches include meditation and isolation of the psyche, suspension of judgment, exposure to and intuitive integration of archetypes through dream-symbol-Art-myth-Faith…and induction of states by contemplation, via shaman and equivalents, and in groups

physical isolation, deprivation, physiological alteration, exposure, shock, trauma, pain, fear, crisis, anxiety, imposed, volitional, exertion, exhaustion, march, rhythm, dance, inaction, fast, environmental extreme

Enhancing or inducing factors—physical isolations and deprivations, physiological alterations from exposure, shock or trauma, pain, fear, crisis, anxiety—imposed or volitional and purposive, exertion and exhaustion, march, rhythm and dance, inaction, fasting and diet, and extremes in environment

The transformations

See the essays—Home—for greater details

A minimal system

home, work, society, world, the universal, theory, design, simulation, construction, variety

Ideas, being and identity: the present—home, work, society, and world—to the universal

Theory, design, simulation, and construction of a variety of being

The journey so far

universal—the, personality, ideas, charisma, mental function, self, awareness, healing, medicine

The—universal—ideas and application to the system above

Examples of the dynamics. Ideas. Personality and charisma. Dynamics of mental functions and—self—awareness. Healing and medicine

Assessment; the way ahead

conception, perception, fear, defense, self-analysis, risk, action, moral design, shared formal commitment, psychic energy, being-in-knowledge-of-the-ultimate, death, doors to the ultimate, construction, arching-journey, be-in-the-present, unseen path

Ideas—success so far is conceptual; emphasize perception

Personality and charisma. Success in use of energy to development of ideas and overcoming fear and ‘defense’—continue perception and trial in this area. Social influence is weak… seek this for ideas; at work—self-analysis and needs, plans, and risk; general action: moral design for influence; cultivation of charisma; sharing; risk—action for influence—and dynamics; shared formal commitment perhaps in a group or institutional setting, existing or separately established toward developing and acting on the designs and plans

Mental function and healing. Use awareness of ‘defense’ to deploy psychic energy toward ideals and goals

From the present to the universal. Foundations lie in the foregoing points, especially understanding of the present and the ultimate. These doors to the ultimate have been recognized: being-in-the-ultimate, being-in-knowledge-of-the-ultimate, death, and construction—the arching-journey. The way ahead: be-in-the-present, see and explore unseen paths, undertake the arching-journey


See the essays—Home

The future

Being and becoming

Objections and counterarguments*

foundational fallacy, symbol, meaning, paradox, experience, intuition, existence, doubt, demonstration, Universe, Void, fundamental principle, realism, objections not based in content or method

Significant and conceptual objections… The conceptual objections may appear neurotic if practically entertained. Although they may appear trivial they are entertained for their immense consequences for method and understanding and for the immediate and the ultimate

The foundational fallacy

unending series, substance, illusion, experience-in-itself, substance theory—clearing away, confusion—clearing away, empirical, necessary

The statement from the development reads

The idea that definitions and foundations form an unending series is a fallacy

A more accurate version is as follows

That final definitions and foundations should be either (a) absent or form an unending series or (b) based in substance is a fallacy

As shown, the fact of experience whether in illusion or of things or whether as experience-in-itself is given. It might be said that this takes experience as substance. The requirements of substance are that it should be ultimately simple, of the world and deterministic in its generation of the variety of being. Simplicity is desirable but not necessary; therefore the fact that experience is not ultimately simple does not rule it out as substance. Worldliness is necessary and experience must be of the world—refer to the concept of the Universe. However, experience does not generate the world deterministically and is therefore not a valid substance. In truth not that much is being said; however, what is significant is that these thoughts are a part of the ‘clearing away of millennia of diversionary substance theory and centuries of confusion regarding the nature of the empirical and the necessary’

Experience and existence

The problem of the nature of experience. Sense—the experience of the subject; similar to awareness, consciousness, what it is like. Also—qualia. Response. The fallacy of unending chains of definition and proof. Experience is primitive. Objection. Is there experience? Response. Experience is primitive. Objection. Personality and doubt—over and above the style of thinking that emphasizes criticism and the critical personality, there are types who constitutively minimize subjective awareness. Response. The appropriate responses are (a) reiteration and alternate formulations, (b) illustrative example, and (c) therapeutic. General doubts regarding existence of the contingent forms of experience. (1) The external world. Response—the self-contradictory nature of solipsism. (2) Identity and other objects. Response. The meaning of faithfulness lies in (a) the necessary forms andor (b) the Kantian-adaptive form of intuition-cognition—which includes the case of immersion in the object-action

Doubt and its functions. (1) Clarification of meaning, understanding, clearing away millennia of confusion, establishing individual knowledge of the universal metaphysics and its immense consequences, establishment of powerful methods of demonstration… (2) Doubt regarding doubt

The problem of existence and its meaning—an introduction. Linguistic roots lie in the ‘existential’ meaning of the verb to be—whether local or global. The meaning may be regarded as a primitive name; or as a name for a mode of experience. Problems of the distinctions among existence and being. (1) ‘Being’ has been reserved for special kinds of being e.g. deity or specific modes, e.g. being-that-is-capable-of-asking-the-question-of-being. Response. The distinction is valid but terminology is optional; here being is reserved for the primitive mode and the special kinds or modes are named separately / treated as cases of being. (2) Being has been regarded as being-in-itself whereas existence has been regarded as being-in-relation. Response. This distinction is shown from the Universal metaphysics to be transparent. (3) Being-existence versus substance or essence. Response. In the Universal metaphysics it is shown that there are no universal substances or essences and any state of being may stand in for substance—without conceptual advantage. Certain states may have local explanatory power. The allegation that existence is trivial, that it is not a concept. Counterargument. Existence is trivial—this is the source of the fundamental character and power of the idea, e.g. foundation of the ultimate metaphysics, displacement of substance; similarly it is a concept that is trivial and powerful in its generic character. The problem of the non-existent object, e.g. what does it mean to say that unicorns do not exist, i.e. what is it that does not exist? Response. The Concept as immanent in the object. Elaboration. Unicorn and Jesus Christ as abstract objects. The first existential problem of being—whether anything exists. Resolution. Experience and its objects. The second existential problem of being—what exists. Resolution. The forms of experience… and their objects… and the theory of Objects. Objection. The forms of experience cannot be said to define objects. Counterargument. The objection and its source have been dealt with in the idea of Concept as immanent in object and in the Kantian / sufficiently faithful concept

Doubts about demonstration of the nature-existence of the Universe and the Void

For details regarding the Universe The second existential problem of being—what exists, above

Doubts and objections regarding the existence of the Void. First objection. Facts from concepts, i.e. contingency from necessity. Counterargument—fallacy of unending chain of definition and proof; empirical character of root concepts of experience and being. Second objection. Existence of the insubstantial complement of the Universe itself. Counterarguments—a variety of alternative proofs, especially the following—that the void exists is not intrinsically paradoxical. The existence of the void is equivalent to its non-existence; therefore the void may be taken to exist; this implies the fundamental theorem—which was the essential consequence of the existence of the void. Third objection. Intuitive doubt regarding the existence of the void. Heuristic counterarguments. (1) The zero force in physics… (2) Minimalist induction from any set of data—World as Logos makes no hypotheses—a reverse application of Hume’s critique or the principle of Ockham. Fourth objection. So much from so little. Response. ‘So much’ is in fact the clearing away of millennia of diversionary substance theory and centuries of confusion regarding the nature of the empirical and the necessary. Objections regarding the character of the void. First objection. That the void contains no object seems to follow from the Universe containing all logically possible objects. Counterargument. The proof is from the concept of the void. Second objection. The quantum vacuum is not empty. Counterargument. The quantum vacuum obeys laws and is not the void

Formal problems concerning the fundamental principle

The fundamental principle and its consequences. First and main  objection. The derivation appears to have no premise. Counterargument. Earlier… The counterargument raises the issue of the nature of meaning and its empirical content; that grammar has rational-empirical content is related to and a generalization of this point. Second objection. The use of the void in the derivation seems to be artificial. The objection requires no counter argument but has a resolution. Alternative proof. There is no other world therefore every possible concept is realized; as the other world, the void is implicit in the ‘proof.’ Heuristic proof—from Ockham’s principle—as earlier. Objection regarding the abstract character of the fundamental principle and its consequent Universal metaphysics. Counterargument. Here, ‘abstract’ means what is most empirical. Objection. Since it is beyond experience metaphysics is impossible. Counterargument. The present metaphysics is profoundly empirical. The idea that an abstract metaphysics is beyond experience is based on a mistake regarding what is empirical. Objection to the Universal metaphysics from determinism. No response is necessary. The search for sophisticated determinist interpretations proves nothing but possible consistency. Here, however, determinism has been shown to be absolutely inconsistent with the logos immanent in the Logos, the world in the World, the universe in the Universe, the object in the Object. Objection. Mechanism—the problem of structure from random process. Simple response. Absolute indeterminism necessitates structure and form. Response—the nature of ‘mechanism.’ Variation, selection, and incremental formation

Adjusting the fundamental principle and its consequences to realism

Objection. On account of its trivial content, the Universal metaphysics does not say anything. Response. See consequences and significance of the metaphysics in Metaphysics through Faith. Objection. Violence to common reality. Counterargument. The concept of the normal—common sense and intuition are local or normal; the Metaphysics of immanence-Universal metaphysics are universal and necessarily consistent via the fact that Empiric-Logic are built in. Analogy to progress in science—consistency with earlier science within the earlier domain of validity. Objection. So much from so little. Response. This is not a rational objection. The basic arguments appear to be ‘little’ but require immense insight, are clearings away of confusions (above) and may be seen as not quite so much when seen as thought but not realized. The program of realization remains open. Objection. Turning away from the here and now. Response. The developments find greater worth in the universal and the immediate from their interaction. Objection. Anxiety from the unmooring of foundation; the revelation of annihilation… Response. These are not objections. A certain anxiety is a necessary condition of being-in-the-real… including becoming; and, annihilation is present whether known or not—the recent concerns of an imploding universe from particle accelerators forget the universal presence of potential annihilation from the ever present elements of being… and their necessity and infinitesimal likelihood. Objection. A doubt regarding meaning—from deconstruction and post-modernism. Response. Here, meaning is empirical. And the only grand narrative is coldly logical and empirical… altogether not posited as was Hegel’s and others’… The political objection to privileged use. Response. I am happy to negotiate a non-intersecting terminology

Objections not based in rationality (content or method)

method-content, ad hominem doubts, core of accepted belief, personal attack, self-affirmation

The kinds of objections in this section are not based in errors of fact or form of argument or other fallacies of reason. Rather they are kinds that are peripheral to method-content. I consider them primarily because they may enter at a level that is less than explicitly conscious and intentional. Such objections or doubts may of course be present in the thinking of others but it is important that they may be present also and especially in the thinking of an author and may therefore have negative impact on the impeccability and strength of an author’s conclusions and arguments. I also take up such considerations so as to be ready for various kinds of attack or minimization based in person and fashion

It is inevitable that some individuals may have at least subconscious ad hominem doubts. My background is laid out at on my website However, an essential point to the present development is its argument and I ask that readers raise any circumstantial doubts to a conscious level and ask whether the value of what they may learn is worth the effort of following the details of the arguments

In any culture there is a core of accepted belief. The present development appears to undermine both classical religion and secular humanism… and there is bound to be ‘objection’ or doubt from these perspectives. The actual position, however, is that those cultures have domains of validity and the present development agrees and must agree with them in those domains. That is because the present development is a necessary universal metaphysics. Individuals will inevitably find some archaic view apparently supported here. In all such known cases the source of this support is some combination of (a) the use of existing terms with new meaning and (b) the replacement of current world views by the universal metaphysics

Finally, I will mention the personal attack as a form of ad hominem objection. I mention this not because I want to take up the concern in any sense of argument but because of the possibility of a defense reaction, i.e. of taking an argument from logic as an ad hominem objection, and in order to prepare myself for it

A general response to the personal attack is (a) positive or self-affirmation, and (b) negative—the attacker is in no position to make such ‘arguments.’ This response is not complete in itself. First, the expression of feeling does not exclude cognitive truth. Therefore, if I set myself up defensively against all but the calmest argument I am almost inevitably missing some essential element of being-in-the-world which includes ideas relevant to the topic under discussion. Second, audiences, i.e. third parties are sensitive to feeling even when it is peripheral to the issues. In fact all parties, including the 1st and the 2nd are sensitive to the sway of elements peripheral to the issues at hand. These elements which include the ad hominem argument are not intrinsically peripheral or destructive they may also be constructive and interwoven with the ‘issues.’ There are situations where the para-argument should be used in return. A second general response is to bring the focus, including that of para-argument, back to the real issues

Topics from the history of ideas*

philosophy, metaphysics, problems of metaphysics, method, human knowledge

Philosophy and metaphysics

concepts, inquiry—nature of—a philosophical question, practice, academic division, practitioner, what can be known, nature of the universe, analysis of concepts, analysis of language, scientific positivism, scientific constraint, analytic metaphysics of objects, faith, psychological hold, metaphorical content, ethics, aesthetics, meaning of logical terms, philosophy of physics, philosophical psychology

The investigation into the nature of philosophy is taken up in greater depth in the essays—Home. There we review (1) what it means to ask ‘What is philosophy?’ and related questions, (2) and the history of reflections on the nature of philosophy and the logic and practice of the question. The practice concerns how the academic divisions and their practitioners relate today and how this depends on past relations and tradition. The logic concerns what we know of the nature of the universe and of knowledge and how this affects conceptions of the nature of disciplines. Naturally, practice and logic interact but neither fully determines the other

The conceptions of what can be known and of the nature of the universe are perhaps determinative of our conceptions of philosophy. In light of Kant’s demonstration of the impossibility of metaphysics and knowledge of the noumenon, i.e. the thing-in-itself, and in light of the immense conceptual—and practical—success of science, severe limitations are understood to apply to the purely conceptual disciplines of which perhaps philosophy is the primary exemplar

Thus, relative to the past when philosophers thought they could know the world by thought alone, today philosophy, especially in the analytic circles of academic Anglo-American philosophy, is thought to be restricted, at least, to the analysis of concepts and, perhaps, those areas of knowledge of fact that, for one reason or another, are strongly and actively conceptual

Thus metaphysics as knowledge of the nature of the world and cosmology as knowledge of the universe are not considered to be the domain of philosophy. In the heyday of positivism, philosophy was restricted severely restricted to analysis of language and the underpinnings or foundation of a scientific positivism. Today, with general awareness of the limitations of positivism and the thought that language is after all about the world there is some return to analysis of things but still within a domain proscribed by various practical necessities, especially those of natural science. Discussion of matter and mind are permitted today but within scientific constraint. A restricted analytic metaphysics of objects is allowed but there is nothing like the conception of the Universe of the present development. Study of faith based pictures may be analyzed for their psychological hold and for metaphorical content but this is mostly done outside philosophy. Ethics, aesthetics, and the study of the meaning of logical terms fall under philosophy; additionally there is a host of special disciplines such as the philosophy of physics and philosophical psychology

The present development changes the Logical picture altogether though of course not the general and academic cultural picture which will take absorption by the general community

The changes are, briefly, as follows


outer limits, being, method, empirical-logical analysis, experience-meaning, method, ultimate depth, ultimate variety, goal, single coherent system of description

Metaphysics as the discipline whose concern is the outer limits of being; whose method—the method of the empirical-logical analysis of experience-meaning—shows how to study at those outer limits; and which is revealed as a study of being of ultimate depth and variety

The goal of metaphysics may be said to be to bring all experience—and intention and action—including the forms of experience into a single coherent system of description of the universe. The final concept will not include all forms because, due to consistency the requirement, there is no Object that is the referent object of all forms. However, the final Object will implicitly contain all forms of experience-in-themselves, i.e. as concepts. Metaphysics may be said to be the result of this goal


Philosophy as the discipline whose limits are the outer limits of being; whose method shows how to study within those limits—the method of metaphysics and the interactively modified methods of less general contexts; and which is revealed as a study of meaning but also of fact and significance and a study in lateral analysis but also in analysis via depth. The firmness of the foundation of metaphysics is carried over to the foundation philosophy where the limit of firmness or certainty is the modified firmness or certainty of the special context or discipline

The problems of metaphysics

Here, consider the nature and classification of the problems and some specific problems of the present metaphysics. An actual and detailed catalog of the problems, ancient, modern, recent, and those of the present metaphysics are taken up in the essays—Home

The nature of the problems of metaphysics

metaphysics—nature of, metaphysics— possibility of, characterization, object, category

A first set of problems, noted immediately above, concern the nature and possibility of metaphysics and possibility

Is there a way to characterize the problems of metaphysics?

In the historical pursuit of metaphysics and the disciplines—and in the present development—various objects and categories have been identified (the theory of objects has shown that the distinction between object and category is one of kind of object rather than categorial)

The essential problems of the discipline of metaphysics concern the nature of these objects—and categories—and the problem of fitting them into a coherent (consistent) system. A review of the actual problems reveals this to be the case and it is not necessary to re-list the problems to prove the point

The question of the nature of mind is an example of the former and the mind-body problem is an example of coherence among the understanding of the objects. Naturally the questions of nature and of coherence are related. One source of difficulty is not seeing or forgetting this. Thus, if a modern philosopher were asked ‘Do we understand mind and its nature?’ the response might be that surely we have some understanding but equally surely there is some doubt regarding its nature. Reflecting on matter, the philosopher might give a similar answer. However, when reflecting on the mind-body problem, the same philosopher might revert to received notions of mind and of matter. While this may be natural, it would be better to approach the dual problem of the nature and coherence of the objects in question. In fact it would be infinitely better for the alternative misunderstands the nature of the question and is almost certainly doomed to failure

Although a listing of problems would be mere repetition, it is valuable in light of the foregoing to classify the problems

Classification of the problems of metaphysics

meta-problem, metaphysical object

The first problem class is the meta-problem set entailed by the questions ‘What is metaphysics?’ and ‘Is metaphysics possible?’ These are philosophical problems but metaphysics is sufficiently close to philosophy that we may think of them as metaphysical problems. In the broadest valid sense of metaphysics they are indeed metaphysical. It may be repeated that the two questions constitute a dual question set—the answer to one depends on the answer to the other and therefore any answering must be a dual or simultaneous answering. This appears to make the problem more difficult but after becoming familiar with the dual approach to concepts we find it clarifying and simplifying

A second problem or concern is to identify the important objects of metaphysics. These fall into two classes—those fundamental to the development of the metaphysics and those that have intrinsic interest or importance (to human beings.) These classes are, of course, not altogether distinct

Problems raised in the present development

The present development resolves the question of the possibility of metaphysics and consequently of the nature of the theory of objects, of logic and method, of the nature of mind…

Some problems addressed and resolved here

The problem of final or ultimate explanation. The problem of grand narratives—the problem is not of the actuality but that of positing such a narrative for, if such a ‘narrative’ emerges in cold empiric-rationalism there can be no stand against it except cold argument

The problem of a non-relativist philosophy without substance… of final or ultimate explanation. An encapsulation of the resolution is to recognize the sense in which such explanation is possible and actual. First, it is explicit with respect to depth—the foundations are trivial even though immense and profound in implication; and, of course, seeing the foundation is not at all a trivial endeavor. Second, the ‘final and ultimate’ explanation is implicit with respect to breadth—All Being is its implicit Object; however, the discovery and Experience—Capitalization implies becoming the Object rather than merely conceiving it—is a process, a journey

The nature of the ultimate breadth and depth of metaphysics, i.e. of the Universal metaphysics or Metaphysics of immanence

The problem of ultimate explanation that has no application. This problem is resolved, first, in revealing the falsity of the practical / theoretical / immediate / ultimate dichotomies; and then in showing, in their common meanings, both applicability and application

The problem of mere being. There is no mere being—except as approximation. Human being is not ‘mere;’ animal being is anything but ‘mere.’ Greatness does not require being greater than

The fundamental problem of metaphysics. This is the problem of why there is anything. Its resolution; its fundamental character is rendered trivial. The fundamental problem becomes ‘What things exist?’

The idea of Method

method, how to, way, Baconian method, absolute method, meta, hodos, etymology, lexicon, meta-method, foundation of depth, non-dual, experience-meaning, empirical-symbolic analysis, method—encoded, method—tacit—in institutions and practices, awe, power, adventure


The core idea of method may be regarded as ‘how to.’ It has sometimes been thought and often hoped, regarding disciplines such as scientific discovery or mathematical proof, that there is a way that will invariably and step-wise lead to correct and perhaps even ‘complete’ results. An example is what has been called the Baconian method of Francis Bacon (1561-1626.) A method that is guaranteed to lead to all valid and no invalid results may be called absolute

‘Method’ stems from the Greek, meta-after and hodos-way, which suggests that there is or may be an approach to method, a method of method (we regard etymology and even lexicon as suggestive rather than definitive)

In the present development, it emerges that there is no method that will reveal the variety of being or the transformations that realize that variety or even what may be desirable from the variety

Even though variety is guaranteed, there is no absolute method

However, there has emerged a method to the foundation of depth metaphysics—what it says and how it is known. The method emerges in the analysis of meaning and the necessary empirical-rational content of meaning. It is found that at root content and method emerge together and are non-dual; i.e., method and content are not entirely separable

What method of method or meta-method there is lies in the dual empirical-symbolic analysis of experience-meaning

Some separation of method and content is possible and this is one source of the idea of a method that stands above and in isolation from content

Regarding discovery and transformation, the metaphysics and the disciplines and their ‘methods’ may be used to powerful effect but, as noted, do not show or guarantee outcomes

The idea of method encodes what has been learned about process. However, even what method obtains is not fully coded as explicit prescription but is tacit in institutions and practices

Discovery, especially scientific discovery is awe-some. Therefore, even disregarding power, desire for absolute method is understandable. However, absolute method would remove the basis of awe—that there is something that is not only greater than the individual or civilization but is greater anything that we normally know

It is not rational to desire or shun absolute method. It is sufficient to know that there is no absolute method. There is no foundation of being or knowing outside being. A prime source of awe and adventure is that we are and remain immersed in being

Principles of thought and action

principle, thought, action, method, habit, institution, Demonstration, Logic, rationality

As used here principles of thought are distinct from method. The principles are those habits and institutions of thought and action that are—most—conducive to discovery and transformation; such principles contain but are not—at all—limited to Method, Demonstration, or Logic

Whether such principles are included in ‘rationality’ depends on what is meant by that term


reflexivity, discipline, experience, imagination, construction, criticism, wide experience, paradox, self-reference, creativity

Of all principles of thought considered in the essays—Home—the principle of reflexivity is emerging as deep and encompassing, perhaps deepest and most encompassing. Reflexivity includes interaction—among the disciplines, experience, imagination and construction, and criticism—which allows the critical elaboration of ideas in disciplines and hierarchies

Wide experience, immersion in the world, travel, reading, studying crucial to effective reflexivity

Criticism and construction are elements of reflexivity

A source of the idea of reflexivity is the application of every principle to itself and, when the principle is not among its Objects, reinterpretation or expansion of scope that permits the principle to be one of its own Objects

It is well known that a significant source of paradox is self-reference. Of course not all self-reference leads to paradox and self-reference and, more generally, reflexivity are sources of creativity and construction

Dynamics of being

dynamics of being, way, becoming, conceptual method, scientific approach

Dynamics of being is emerging as the way of becoming

Conceptual method, the scientific approach of setting or modifying hypotheses, deduction, comparison of prediction and outcome are particular cases of the Dynamics

A system of human knowledge

system, human knowledge, conceptual-encyclopedic system, enhancement, Ultimate metaphysics, ultimate aspect, contingent Object, symbol, knowledge, sign, semiotics, language, logic, mathematics, humanities, philosophy, science , history, Universe, metaphysics, general cosmology, Logic, value, ethics, aesthetics, epistemology, varieties of knowledge, belief , faith, Belief-Action, knowledge, Belief-Justification, physical science, nature, energy, force, material object, physics, physical cosmology, chemistry, geology, biology, life, origins of life and variety, medicine, mind , functions, nature of mind, society, institution, group, change, culture, history, political science and philosophy, law, economics, artifact, art, literature, music, painting, sculpture, architecture, technology, technology—elements of, energy, tools and machines, agriculture, transportation, information, earth and space exploration, engineering, faith, literal, non literal meaning, non meaning function, religion, religions of the world, Religion, unnamed and un-thought ideational form

The purposes to this discussion include (1) to show how the present developments enhance to an ultimate level in the direction of depth some modern conceptual-encyclopedic systems, in this case the Britannica system of the 15th edition, and (2) to have the concept of such a system available for various purposes

As a consequence of the Ultimate metaphysics, each area assumes a form that has an ultimate aspect that is limited of course by the contingent Object of concern

A. Symbols and Knowledge

10a. Symbols and signs; semiotics—the study of signs and sign behavior. Symbolic Systems including language, logic, and mathematics. 10b. The Humanities and Philosophy; Study of Science and History

B. The Universe

1a. Metaphysics and general cosmology, nature and varieties of Being, which includes Logic, Value or ethics and aesthetics, epistemology; nature and varieties of Knowledge, where, note, Belief is fundamental and the varieties of belief include Faith as (primarily) Belief-Action, Knowledge as Belief-Justification; 1b. Physical science, nature, behavior of energy and varieties of force and material object including physics, physical cosmology, and chemistry; 2. Geology; 3. Biology, life—its nature and variety and origins of life and variety; Medicine; 4. Mind as the study of psyche in its integration and its ‘functions;’ nature of mind; 5. Society, nature, institutions (groups) and change… and aspects including culture (institution of knowledge,) economics, political science and philosophy (and Law;) and 6. History

C. Artifact

7. Art, nature and varieties of (literature, music, painting, sculpture, architecture…;) 8. Technology (elements: energy, tools and machines… and fields: agriculture, transportation, information, earth and space exploration…; Engineering; and 9. Faith, literal and nature and varieties of non literal meaning and non meaning functions; religion, its nature and varieties: the religions of the world throughout history and the concept of Religion and its relation to possible and potential realizations of as yet unnamed and un-thought ideational form