Anil Mitra, © ~1988—2019

Not a main document for my work. Repeats material in History of western philosophy.html; for use in main influences.html.




Philosophy I.    the Great Western Philosophers

Philosophy II.    Recent Philosophers

Philosophy III.    Works from the History of Political and Economic Philosophy

Philosophy IV.    Recent Writers: Political Philosophy and Related Disciplines

Philosophy V.    Modern Indian philosophers



Great art and artists



The philosophers selected are those important for future study; History of Western Philosophy has a more complete listing

Philosophy I.                                           the Great Western Philosophers

Before Plato

The significance of the Greek period before Plato includes the origin of a written tradition of the reflective consciousness of ideas [starting with Thales,] the origin [the Eleatic School and the Sophists] and first maturation of critical thought [Socrates and his legend]


The “important” aspects [for now] of Plato are:

Knowledge: Parmenides [theory of forms]

Cosmology: Timaeus

Politics: Republic

A source for Plato:The Collected Dialogues of Plato, Edith Hamilton and Huntington Cairnes eds., 1961

The traditional order of Plato’s works: Euthyphron [Euthyphro]; Apologia Sokratous [Apology]; Criton [Crito]; Phaedon [Phaedo]; Cratylos [Cratylus]; Theaetetos [Theaetetus]; Sophistes [Sophist]; Politikos [Statesman]; Parmenides; Philebos [Philebus]; Symposion [Symposium]; Phaedros [Phaedrus]; Alkibiades [Alcibiades]; Hipparchos [Hipparchus]; Erastai [Lovers]; Charmides; Laches; Lysis; Euthydemos [Euthydemus]; Protagoras; Gorgias; Menon [Meno]; Hippias Meizon [Hippias Major]; Hippias Elatton [Hippias Minor]; Ion; Menexenos [Menexenus]; Politeia [Republic]; Timaeos [Timeaus]; Critias; Nomoi [Laws]; and Epinomis


Aristotle’s works divide into [EB]

Logic [Organon;]

Natural Philosophy [physical - Physike, Peri ouranou – On the Heavens, Peri geneseos kai phthoras (On Generation and Corruption; On Coming to Be and Passing Away;) Meteorologika (Meteorology;) biological – Peri ta zoa historiai (History of Animals;) Peri zoon morion (Parts of Animals;) Peri zoon kineseos (Movement of Animals;) Peri poreias zoon (Progression of Animals;) Peri zoon geneseos (Generation of Animals)

Psychobiological – the collective Parva Naturalia on psychobiological topics – Peri aistheseos (On the Senses and Their Objects; On Sense and Sensible Objects;) Peri mnemes kai anamneseos (On Memory and Recollection;) Peri hypnou kai egregorseos (On Sleep and Waking;) Peri enypnion (On Dreams;) Peri tes kath hypnon mantikes (On Divination in Sleep; On Prophecy in Sleep;) Peri makrobiotetos kai brachybiotetos (On Length and Shortness of Life;) Peri neotetos kai geros (On Youth and Old Age;) Peri zoes kai thanatou (On Life and Death;) Peri anapnoes (On Respiration)]

Psychology [Peri psyches and the collective Parva Naturalia]

Metaphysics [Ta meta ta physika]

Ethics [Nichomachean and Eudemian Ethics] and Politics [Politics]

Aesthetics and Literature [Rhetoric and the incomplete Peri poietikes]

Descartes, René

Le Monde [the World,] completed 1633, published 1664

Regulae ad Directionem Ingenii [Rules for the Direction of the Mind; in which Descartes gave four rules for reasoning: 1. Accept nothing as true that is not self-evident, 2. Divide problems into their simplest parts, 3. Solve problems by proceeding from simple to complex, 4. Recheck the reasoning,] written by 1628 published 1701

Discours de la méthode [Discourse on Method], 1637

Meditationes de Prima Philosophia [Meditations on First Philosophy in Which Is Proved the Existence of God and the Immortality of the Soul; includes Decartes’ reflections on methodical doubt] 1641

Spinoza, Benedict de

Ethica [Ethics] written roughly over 1660-1675, published posthumously [Spinoza died in 1677 and the work was published after his death in that year]

Locke, John

An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, 1690

Two Treatises of Government, 1690

Some Thoughts Concerning Education, 1693

Hume, David

A Treatise of Human Nature: Book 1 Of the Understanding, Book 2 Of the Passions, Book 3 Of Morals, 1739–40

An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (a rewriting of the first book of the Treatise which Hume repudiated as immature, with addition of the essay On Miracles), originally titled Philosophical Essays Concerning Human Understanding, 1748.

An Abstract of… A Treatise of Human Nature, 1740

Essays, Moral and Political, 1741–42

An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals, 1751

Political Discourses, 1752

Four Dissertations, 1757

Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, 1779

Kant, Immanuel

Critique of Pure Reason, trs. 1929, 1951, original German edition, Critik der reinen Vernunft, 1781, rev. ed. Kritik der reinen Vernunft, 1787

Prolegomena to any Future Metaphysics, trs. 1951, Prolegomena zur einer jeden künftigen Metaphysik die als Wissenschaft wird auftreten können, 1783

Critique of Practical Reason, trs. 1949, Critik der practischen Vernunft 1788

Critique of Judgment, vol. 1, Kant's Critique of Aesthetic Judgment and vol. 2, Critique of Teleological Judgment, 1911–28, republished 1952, Critik der Urteilskraft 1790, 2nd ed. 1793

Hegel, George Wilhelm Friedrich

The Phenomenology of Mind, 1807, trs. J. B. Baille, 1967

Science of Logic, 1812-1816 [Objective Logic, 1812 and Subjective Logic, 1816]

Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences in Outline, 1817 [Logic, Nature, Mind]

The Philosophy of Right, 1821, trs. J. B. Baille, 1952

Lecture Notes on Aesthetics, Philosophy of Religion, Philosophy of History, and History of Philosophy, written about 1823-1827

Schopenhauer, Arthur

On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason: a Philosophical Essay, 1813

The World as Will and Representation, in two volumes, Volume I, trs. E. F. J. Payne, 1958, original German edition, Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung, 1819; Volume II, trs. E. F. J. Payne, 1958, the original German edition of Volume II appears with the second edition of the work in 1844 in which Volume I is essentially unchanged; a third German edition was published in 1859

Parerga and Paralimpomena [minor works and remnants,] 1851

Nietzsche, Friedrich

Nietzsche is treated in Recent Philosophers

Philosophy II.                                        Recent Philosophers

Adorno, Theodore Wiesengrund

Formost member of the Frankfurt School

Social philosophy, critical theory, epistemology

Studies on Hegel, Heidegger, Husserl – in Against Epistemology, Kierkegaard


Kierkegaard: Construction of the Aesthetic, 1933, trs. and ed. Robert Hullot-Kentor, 1989

Against Epistemology: a Metacritique, 1956, trs. Willis Domigno, 1982

Bradley, Francis Herbert

Absolute idealism, ethics and logic


Principles of Logic, 1883

Appearance and Reality, 1893

Essays on Truth and Reality, 1914

Collected Essays, 1935

Carnap, Rudolf

Logic, semantics, epistemology and philosophy of science

Note Carnap’s second meaning of probability i.e. that of ‘theoretical coherence’


The Logical Syntax of Language, trs. 1937; original German, 1934

Empiricism, semantics and Ontology, in Revue Internationale de Philosophie 4, 1950

The Logical Foundations of Probability, 1950

Meaning and Necessity, 1956

‘The elimination of metaphysics through the logical analysis of language,’ in A. J. Ayer, ed. Logical Positivism, 1957

Davidson, Donald Herbert

Philosophy of mind and of language

It is Davidson’s philosophy of mind, especially his anomalous monism, that is of importance to my analysis of mind and the mind-body issue in Journey of Being


Mental Events, in Essays on Actions and Events, 1980

Frege, Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob

Logic, analytic philosophy, Platonist philosophy of mathematics


The Foundations of Arithmetic, trs. J. L. Austin, 1952; original German 1884

The Basic Laws of Arithmetic I, trs. and ed. Montgomery Furth, 1964; 1893

The Basic Laws of Arithmetic II, translations of extracts in Translations from the Philosophical Writings of Gottlob Frege trs. and ed. P. Geach and M. Black, 1980; 1903

Gilson, Étienne Henri

Neo-scholastic with interests in the main divisions of philosophy and its history

My interest in Gilson is that he was the ‘most influential’ historian of mediaval philosophy in the 20th century

… and, therefore, I will undertake a study Gilson if I need to study or think about medieval philosophy or Christian scholasticism


The Christian Philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas, trs. from the original French text, Le Thomisme, of 1919

Gödel, Kurt

Gödel remains a seminal figure and, hence his inclusion here. As a result of the startling impact of his 1931 paper “Uber formal unendscheitbare Sätze der… etc.” Gödel will remain forever fascinating in the present period. However, the significance of his work may not quite be the shaking of the foundations that it has often thought to be… and this has, of course, been shown in the literature

I will undertake further study of Gödel as the occasion arises

Husserl, Edmund

Included in this list because of the importance, especially to phenomenology and not because of an imperative to be immersed in the works


Logical Investigations, trs. JN Findlay, 1970, from Logische Untersuchungeng, 1900–1

Kripke, Saul Aaron

Logic – especially modal logic i.e. the logical principles of ‘modal’ notions such as possibility, necessity, contingency and ‘strict’ implication; philosophy of language and, secondarily, of mind

Kripke’s interest is partly that he was a phenomenon – his first paper, a theorm in modal logic was published in 1959 when he was 19… but also because of: his clarification of the meaning and validity of modal logics, contributions to the theory of truth, analysis of the recalcitrant logical and semantical paradoxes, denial of the distinctions: necessary / a posteriori truths, naming / meaning, sense / reference… ‘Certainly, propositions can be necessary when actually so but a posteriori to a finite mind


Naming and Necessity, 1980

Lenin, Vladimir ll’ich

How can one not be interested in Lenin? Bertrand Russell once said that he regarded Lenin as the greatest man he had ever met because, quoting from Bryan Magee, who knew Russell, in Confessions of a Philosopher, 1997 “Lenin combined a brilliant mind with genius-level ability as a man of action, and this gave him extraordinary stature and effectiveness as a person. Also, he had changed the course of world history in a way few individuals ever do.”… note the modern pertinence of text, “Imperialism, the Highest etc… ,” below… because of his dynamism he is almost as interesting as Marx who I do not currently include here [if his name were to occur it would be upon a later writing]… and he is incredibly more interesting than Trotsky or Stalin, the latter whom I might include if I were writing a history of fortuitous thuggery and the former who I would include only in a sentimental moment… I will study Lenin, if at all, at a much later time

Texts of interest:

What is to be done? Burning Questions of our Movement, 1929 trs. from the 1902 Russian

Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism: A Popular Outline, 1933, trs. from the 1916 Russian

Collected Works, 47 vols…

Nietzsche, Friedrich

Nietzsche’s interests were in ontology, epistemology, Greek and Christian thought, theory of values, nihilism, aesthetics and cultural theory


The Birth of Tragedy, trs. W. Kaufmann, 1954; original German, 1872

Daybreak, trs. R. J. Hollingdale, 1982; 1881

Thus Spoke Zarathustra, trs. R. J. Hollingdale, 1968; 1883-5

Beyond Good and Evil, trs. R. J. Hollingdale, 1966; 1886

The Twilight of the Idols, trs. R. J. Hollingdale, 1968; 1889

The Anti-Christ, R. J. Hollingdale, 1968; 1895

Nietzsche against Wagner, trs. W. Kaufmann in The Portable Nietzsche, ed. W. Kaufmann, 1954; 1895

Ecce Homo, trs. W. Kaufmann, 1968; 1908

Popper, Karl Raimund

Popper’s interests were in epistemology, philosophy of science, and political philosophy


The Logic of Scientific Discovery, 1959, trs. of revised and expanded version of Logik der Forschung, 1934

The Open Society and Its Enemies, 1945

Indeterminism in quantum physics and in classical physics, in British Journal for Philosophy of Science, 1950

The Poverty of Historicism, 1957

Conjectures and Refutations, 1963

[the next three titles are the three volumes of Postscript: After Twenty Years, in proof since 1957]

The Open Universe: An Argument for Indeterminism, 1982

Quantum Theory and the Schism in Physics, 1982

Realism and the Aim of Science, 1983

Quine, Willard Van Orman

Logic, epistemology, philosophy of science and language


On What There Is, 1953

Word and Object, 1960

Ontological Relativity and Other Essays, 1969

The Roots of Reference, 1974

Theories and Things, 1981

Pursuit of Truth, 1990

Russell, Bertrand Arthur William


A Critical Exposition of the Philosophy of Leibniz, 1900

The Principles of Mathematics, 1903

On Denoting, in Mind, 1905

Philosophical Essays, 1910

Principia Mathematica, with A. N. Whitehead, 3 vols., 1910-13, 2 ed., 1927

The Problems of Philosophy, 1912

The Theory of Knowledge, 1913, pub. Posthumously in Colledted Papers, v. VII, 1984

Our Knowledge of the External World as a Field for Scientific Method in Philosophy, 1914

The Philosophy of Logical Atomism, in Monist, 1918-19

Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy, 1919

The Analysis of Mind, 1921

The Analysis of Matter, 1927

An Inquiry into Meaning and Truth, 1940

Human Knowledge: Its Scope and Limits, 1948

My Philosophical Development, 1959

Autobiography, 1967-9

Whitehead, Alfred North


The Concept of Nature, 1920

Science and the Modern World, 1925

Process and Reality, 1929, corrected ed. D. R. Griffin and D. W. Sherburne, 1967

Adventures of Ideas, 1933

Modes of Thought, 1938

Philosophy III.                                    Works from the History of Political and Economic Philosophy

Politics and Political Philosophy: Individuals and Major Works

Plato, Republic

Aristotle, Politics

Cicero, The Republic

St Augustine, The City of God

Aquinas, Summa Theologica

Dante, On World Government

Machiavelli, The Prince

Hobbes, Leviathan

Locke, Two Treatises on Civil Government

Montesquieu, Spirit of the Laws

Rousseau, Social Contract 1762

Burke, Reflections on the French Revolution

Paine, The Rights of Man

Hegel, The Philosophy of Rights

Saint-Simon, The Industrial System

Proudhon, What is Property?

Marx and Engels, Communist Manifesto

JS Mill, On Liberty

Bakunin, God and the State

Economics and Economic Philosophy: Individuals and Major Works

Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations 1776

Thomas Malthus, Essay on the Principles of Population l798

David Ricardo, Principles of Political Economy 1817

Karl Marx, Das Kapital 1867-95

Leon Walras, Elements d’économie politique pure 1874-77

Alfred Marshall, Principles of Economics 1890

John Maynard Keynes, The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money 1936

Joseph Schumpeter, Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy 1942

John Kenneth Galbraith, The Affluent Society 1958

Milton Friedman, Inflation: Causes and Consequences 1953

Philosophy IV.                                     Recent Writers: Political Philosophy and Related Disciplines

Source: Robert E. Goodin and Philip Pettit eds., A Companion to Contemporary Political Philosophy, 1993.

Analytical Philosophy

Popper, K., The Open Society and Its Enemies, 1945

Popper, K., The Poverty of Historicism, 1957

Benn, S.I. and R.S. Peters, Social Principles and the Democratic State, 1959

Hart, H.L.A., The Concept of Law, 1961

Barry, B., Political Argument, 1965

Rawls, J., A Theory of Justice, 1971

Barry, B., The Liberal Theory of Justice: A Critical Examination of the Principal Doctrines in ‘A Theory of Justice’ by John Rawls, 1973

Nozick, R., Anarchy, State and Utopia, 1974

Dworkin, G., Taking Rights Seriously, 1977

Habermas, J., ‘Wahrheitstheorien’, in Wirklichkeit und Reflexion: Walter Schulz zum 60 Geburstag, 1973

Hayek, F.A. von, Law, Legislation and Liberty: A New Statement of the Liberal Principles of Justice and Political Economy, 3 vols, 1982

Sandel, M., Liberalism and the Limits of Justice, 1982

Pateman, C., ‘Feminist critiques of the public-private dichotomy’, in S.I. Benn and G. F. Gaus, eds, Public and Private and Social Life, 1983

MacKinnon, C., Feminism Unmodified: Discourses on Life and Law, 1987

Dworkin, G., The Theory and Practice of Autonomy, 1988

Buchanan, A.E., ‘Asserting the communitarian critique of liberalism’, Ethics, 99 (1989), 852-82

Kukathas, C., Hayek and Modern Liberalism, 1989

Barry, B., Theories of Justice, 1989

Barry, B., Political Argument: A Reissue, 1990

Nagel, T., Equality and Partiality, 1991

Okin, S.M., ‘Gender, the Public and the Private’, in D.Held, ed., Political Theory Today, 1991

Sen, A., Commodities and Capabilities, 1985

Continental Philosophy

Adorno, T.W., Minima Moralia, 1974

Adorno, T.W., et. al., The Authoritarian Personality, 1950

Adorno, T.W., et. al., The Positivist Dispute in German Sociology, 1976

Camus, A,, The Rebel, trs. A. Bower, 1954

Derrida, J., Speech and Phenomena, trs. D. B. Allison, 1973

Derrida, J., Of Grammatology, trs. G. C. Spivak, 1976

Derrida, J., Writing and Difference, trs. A. Bass, 1978

Foucault, M., Madness and Civilization, trs. T. Howard, 1971

Foucault, M., The Archaeology of Knowledge, trs. A. M. Sheridan, 1976

Foucault, M., Discipline and Punishmen, trs. A. M. Sheridan, 1977

Freud, S., The Psychopathology of Everyday Life, trs. A. A. Brill, 1938

Freud, S., The Interpretation of Dreams, trs. J. Strachey, 1976

Habermas, J., ‘Technology and science as “ideology” ’,Towards a Rational Society, trs. J. J. Shapiro, 1970

Habermas, J., Theory of Communicative Action, 2 vols., trs. T. McCarthy, 1984

Habermas, J., The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity, 2 vols., trs. F. G. Lawrence, 1987

Hegel, G.W.F., The Phenomenology of Mind, 1807, trs. J. B. Baille, 1967

Hegel, G.W.F., The Philosophy of Right, 1821, trs. J. B. Baille, 1952

Heidegger, M., ‘The origin of the work of art’, 1936 and ‘Letter on humanism’, 1947, in Basic Writings, ed. D. F. Krell, ed., 1977

Heidegger, M., Being and Time, trs. J. Macquarrie and E. Robinson, 1967 and trs. Joan Stambaugh, 1996

Horkheimer, M., and Adorno, T.W., The Dialectic of Enlightenment, trs. J. Cumming, 1972

Kierkegaard, S., ‘Fear and trembling’ in Selections from the Writings of Kierkegaard, trs. L. M. Hollander, 1960

Kierkegaard, S., Either-Or, trs. H. V. Kong and E. H. Kong, 1987

Lévi-Strauss, C., Structural Anthropology, trs. C. Jacobson and B. G.. Schoepf, 1968

Lévi-Strauss, C., The Elementary Structures of Kinship, trs. J. H. Bell, J. R. von Sturmer and R. Needham, 1969

Lukács, G., ‘What is orthodox Marxism?’, in History and Class Consciousness, trs. R. Livingstone, 1971

Lyotard, J.-F., The Postmodern Condition, trs. G. Bennington and B. Massumi, 1984

Marcuse H., One-Dimensional Man, 1968(a)

Marcuse H., ‘Philosophy and critical theory’, in Negations, 1968 (b)

Marcuse H., ‘On revolution’, in Student Power, eds. A. Cockburn and R. Blackburn, 1969

Marcuse H., Soviet Marxism, 1971

Marx, K., ‘Economic and philosophical manuscripts’, in Early Writings, trs. R. Livingstone and G. Benton, 1975

Marx, K., ‘Theses on Feuerbach’, in Early Writings, trs. R. Livingstone and G. Benton, 1975

Marx, K., The German Ideology, trs. C. J. Arthur, 1977

Nietzsche, F., Beyond Good and Evil, trs. R. J. Hollingdale, 1973

Nietzsche, F., Untimely Meditations, trs. R. J. Hollingdale, 1983

Roussseau, J.-J., The Social Contract and Discourses, 1762, trs. G. D. H. Cole, 1973

Roussseau, J.-J., Emile, 1762, trs. B. Foxley, 1974

Saussure, F. de, Course in General Linguistics, 1916, ed. C. Bally and A. Sechehaye, trs. W. Baskin, 1959

Weber, M., The Protestant Ethic and the Rise of Capitalism, trs. T. Parsons, 1930


Arrow, K.J., Social Choice and Individual Values, 1951, 2 ed. 1963

Debreu, G., Theory of Value, 1959

Grote, J., An Examination of the Utilitarian Philosophy, 1870

Jevons, W.S., The Theory of Political Economy, 1871

Lange, O., ‘Foundations of welfare economics’, Econometrica, 10 (1942), 215-28

Laslett, P., Philosophy, Politics and Society, 1956

Pareto, V., Manual of Political Economy, 1909, trs. A. S. Schwier, 1972

Pocock, J. G. A., The Ancient Constitution and the Feudal Law, 1957

Pocock, J. G. A., ‘The history of political thought: a methodological enquiry’, Philosophy, Politics and Society, Series II, 1962

Sidgwick, H., Methods of Ethics, 1874

Skinner, Q. R. D., ‘Meaning and understanding in the history of ideas’, History and Theory, 8, 1969, 199-215: Meaning and Context: Quentin Skinner and his Critics, 1988, 29-67

Skinner, Q. R. D., ‘The republican ideal of political liberty’ Machiavelli and Republicanism, ed. G. Bock, Q. R. D. Skinner and M. Viroli, 293-309

Tuck, R.F., Natural Rights and Theories, 1979

Tully, J.H., A Discourse on Property, 1980

Walras, L., Elements of Pure Economics, 1874, trs. W. Jaffe, 1954

Winch, P., The Idea of a Social Science, 1958


Brennan, G. and Walsh, C., eds., Rationality, Individualism and Public Policy, 1990

Broome, J., ‘Irreducibly social goods – comment II’, in Rationality, Individualism and Public Policy, ed. G. Brennan and C. Walsh, 1990

Durkheim, E., The Division of Labor in Society, 1893

Giddens, A., Capitalism and Modern Social Theory, 1971

MacIntyre, A., After Virtue, 2 ed., 1984

Runciman, W. G., A Critique of Max Weber’s Philosophy of Social Science, 1972

Saint-Simon, H., Selected Writings, trs. and ed. Keith Taylor, 1975

Taylor, C., Philosophical Papers, 2 vols., 1985

Veblen, T., The Leisure Class, 1889

Weber, M., The Methodology of the Social Sciences, trs. E. A. Shills and H. A. Finch, 1949

Weber, M., Economy and Society, eds. G. Roth and C. Wittich, 3 vols., 1968


Arrow, K., Social Choice and Individual Values, 1951

Buchanan, J., ‘The relevance of Pareto optimality’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 6 (1962), 341-54

Buchanan, J., The Limits of Liberty, 1975

Buchanan, J., Freedom in Constitutional Contract, 1977

Buchanan, J., and Tullock, G., The Calculus of Consent, 1962

Hamlin, A., Ethics, Economics and the State, 1986

Hardin, R., Collective Action, 1982

Harsanyi, J., ‘Cardinal welfare, individualistic ethics, and inter-personal comparisons of utility’, Journal of Political Economy, 63 (1955), 309-21

Harsanyi, J., Essays in Ethics, 1976

Hotelling, H., ‘Stability in Competition’, Economic Journal, 39 (1929), 41-57

Lerner, A., The Economics of Control, 1944

Little, I. M. D., A Critique of Welfare Economics, 1957

Olson, M., The Logic of Collective Action, 1965

Robbins, L., The Nature and Significance of Economic Science, 1932

Samuelson, Paul A., ‘The pure theory of public expenditure’, Review of Economics and Statistics, 36 (1954), 387-9

Samuelson, Paul A., ‘Diagrammatic exposition of a theory of public expenditure’, Review of Economics and Statistics, 37 (1955), 350-6

Samuelson, Paul A., with William D. Nordhaus since 1985, Economics: an Introductory analysis, 1948, 18th ed., 2004

Scitovsky, T., ‘A note on welfare propositions in economics’, Review of Economic Studies, 9 (1941-2), 77-88

Sen, A., ‘Rational fools: a critique of the behavioral foundations of economic theory’, Philosophy and Public Affairs, 6 (1977), 314-44

Political Science

Abercrombie, N., Hill, S. and Turner, B. S., The Dominant Ideology, 1980

Allison, G. T., The Essence of Decision, 1971

Binder, L., et. al. Crises and Sequences in Political Development, 1971

Cohen, G. A., Karl Marx’s Theory of History, 1978

Geertz, C. A., Old Societies and New States, 1963

Goodin, R. E., ‘The development-rights trade-off’, Universal Human Rights, 1 (1979), 31-42

Lane, R. E., ‘Waiting for lefty: the capitalist genesis of socialist man’, Theory & Society, 6 (1978), 1-28

Lasswell, H. D., Politics: Who Gets What, When, How?, 1950

Levine, H. D., ‘Some things to all men: the politics of cruise missile development’, Public Policy, 7 (1972), 117-68

Mann, M., ‘The social cohesion of liberal democracy’, American Sociological Review, 35 (1970), 423-29

March, J. G., ‘Model bias in social action’, Review of Educational Research, 42 (1972), 413-29

Olsen, J. P., ‘Public policy-making and theories of organizational choice’, Scandinavian Political Studies, 7 (1972), 45-62

Wittfogel, K. A., Oriental Despotism, 1957

Zolberg, A., ‘Moments of madness’, Politics & Society, 1 (1972), 183-208

Legal Studies

Braithwaite, J. and Pettit, P., Not Just Deserts, 1990

Dworkin, R., Law’s Empire, 1986

Fuller, L., The Morality of the Law, 1969

Gunningham, N., Safeguarding the Worker: the Role of the Law, 1984

Hart, H. L. A., The Concept of the Law, 1961

Hart, H. L. A., Punishment and Responsibility, 1968

Hart, H. L. A., Essays in Jurisprudence and Philosophy, 1983

Hart, H. L. A. and Honoré, A., Causation and the Law, 1985

Kennedy, D., ‘Form and substance in private law adjudication’, Harvard Law Review, 89 (1976), 1685

Kennedy, D., ‘The Structure of Blackstone’s Commentaries’, Buffalo Law Review, 28 (1979), 209

Kennedy, D., ‘Legal Education as Training for Hierarchy’, in D. Kairys, ed., The Politics of Law: A Progression Technique, 1982

McBarnet, D., Conviction: Law, the State and the Construction of Justice, 1981

Meiklejohn, A., Political Freedom: the Constitutional Powers of the People, 1965

Posner, R., Economic Analysis of the Law, 1977

Rose-Ackerman, S., ‘Progressive Law and Economics’, Yale Law Journal, 98 (1988), 341

Sadurski, W., Giving Desert its Due, 1985

Sunstein, C. R., ‘Pornography and the first amendment’, Duke Law Journal (1986), 589

Tribe, L. H., American Constitutional Law, 2nd ed., 1988

Tribe, L. H., Abortion: The Clash of Absolutes, 1990

Tushnet, M., The American Law of Slavery, 1981

Waldron, J., The Law, 1990

Philosophy V.                                        Modern Indian philosophers

Pre-1947 Most of the following group were idealist metaphysicians i.e., they believed that reality is spiritual: Aurobindo Ghosh “Sri Aurobindo” 1872 – 1950 a modern Vedantic philosopher, K.C. Bhattacharya, Rabindranath Tagore, M.K. Gandhi, S. Radhakrishnan, B. Seal, H. Haldar, R.D. Ranade, D.M. Datta, N.V. Bannerjee, R. Das, A.C. Mukherji; N.V. Bannerjee, and R Das, in contrast, were influenced by Hegel and Sankara

Post 1947 The following two groups are influenced by analytic philosophy, modern logic, phenomenology and/or Navya-Nyâya –– the logical-epistemological school of Indian Philosophy: P.J. Chaudhury, K.D. Bhattacharya, A.S. Ayub; and a younger group: M. Chatterjee, N.K. Devaraja, Daya Krishna, Bimal Matilal, J.N. Mohanty, Rajendra Prasad, P.K. Sen

Non-Indians practicing modes of Indian Philosophy: Daniel Ingalls, Eric Fraunwallner, Eliot Deutsch, Karl Potter



Homer, The Iliad and The Odyssey

Virgil, Aenid

Augustine, The City of God

Icelandic sagas, Prose Edda and Poetic Edda, …the fullest and most detailed source for modern knowledge of Germanic mythology.

Beowulf, the heroic poem of Old English Literature

Song of Hildebrand, German

The Divine Comedy, Dante

Paradise Lost, 1667; Paradise Regained and Samson Agonistes, 1671, John Milton

Molière, Racine, Boileau, and La Fontaine of what has been called the greatest age of French literature

The 18th century. Britain: Alexander Pope, Jonathan Swift, and Samuel Johnson, Henry Fielding, Daniel Defoe, Tobias Smollett, Samuel Richardson and Laurence Sterne. France: Voltaire, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Charles de Montesquieu, Denis Diderot and Jean d'Alembert. In Germany: Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Schiller

The 19th century – Romanticism. Fabre d'Olivet in France; Wordsworth, Coleridge, John Keats and Lord Byron in England; and Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Aleksandr Pushkin and Mikhail Lermontov in Russia; James Fenimore Cooper, Edgar Allan Poe; Walt Whitman, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau in America which, as Wordsworth's pronouncements had done, affirmed the power of “insight” to transcend ordinary logic and experience

The 19th century – Post-Romanticism. Heinrich Heine in Germany; Charles Baudelaire, Paul Verlaine, Stéphane Mallarmé and Arthur Rimbaud in France; Jane Austen with Northanger Abbey and Sense and Sensibility in England; especially Benjamin Constant, Stendhal Gustave Flaubert and Émile Zola, also in France; Eliot, Charles Dickens, and Thomas Hardy in England and Nikolay Gogol, Ivan Turgenev, Leo Tolstoy, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, and Anton Chekhov in Russia; Henrik Ibsen in Norway; August Strindberg in Sweden; Gogol, Turgenev and Anton Chekov in Russia

The 20th century. Joseph Conrad, Thomas Hardy, Henry James, D.H. Lawrence, Marcel Proust, André Gide, James Joyce's, Franz Kafka, and Thomas Mann, André Breton, Rainer Maria Rilkem, T.S. Eliot

Great art and artists

Cave paintings especially animals and the hunt and objects such as Horse a 2½" mammoth ivory carving from Bogelherd cave 28,000 BC the old stoneage [40,000 – 10,000 BC ending with the cessation of the most recent Ice Age]

In the new stonage [till historic times] from which the following are remarkable: architecture with houses and shrines including paintings of the animal hunt and monuments such as Stonehenge c. 2000 B.C

Egypt: the pyramids and the Great Sphinx at Giza and the statues of the pharaohs; the court of Ramesses II; the coffin of Tutankhamen

Sumer: Ziggurat of King Urnammu, Ur, Iraq c. 2100 B.C

Greece: The Parthenon; statues - Nike of Samothrace c. 200 BC and The Laocoön Group

Rome: The Pantheon, Rome, 118 – 25 A.D

Gothic: Notre-Dame, Paris, 1163 – c. 1250; Chartres Cathedral 1145 - 1220, and the stained glass Notre Dame de la Belle Verrière, c. 1170; Amiens Cathedral begun 1220; Salisbury Cathedral, England 1220 – 1770; Gloucester Cathedral, England, 1332 – 1357; Sta. Croce, Florence, begun c. 1295; Florence Cathedral, begun by Arnolfo di Cambio, 1296, dome by Filippo Brunelleschi, 1420 – 36; Milan Cathedral, begun 1386, considered by H. W. Janson to be overly elaborate as a result of detail applied in mechanical fashion over the centuries was completed in 1910

Early Renaissance in Italy: Donatello, statues, 1386 – 1466, Prophet, 1423 – 25, 6' 5"; David, c. 1425 – 1430, bronze, 62¼"; Mary Magdalene, c. 1455, wood, partially gilded. Early Renaissance in Italy: Boticelli, c. 1480, The Birth of Venus

High Renaissance in Italy – I cannot, now, do justice to the feeling evoked by Leonardo, Bramante, Michelangelo, Raphael, Giorgione, Titian and therefore the selection here is very thin; I hope that this is balanced by the power of evocation of the works. Leonardo da Vinci: Adoration of the Magi, 1481 – 82; The Last Supper c. 1495 – 98. Michelangelo: Pieta, c. 1500; David, 1501 – 4, 13' 5"; The Sistine Ceiling, 1508 – 12 including The Creation of Adam; St. Peter’s, Rome, 1546 – 64, dome completed by Giacomo della Porta, 1590. Raphael: La Belle Jardinière, 1507; The Sacrifice at Lystra, 1514 – 15. Giorgione, The Tempest, c. 1505. Titian: Bacchanal, c. 1518; Man with the Glove, c. 1520; Christ Crowned with Thorns, c. 1570

From 1525 to 1600, in Italy, the period now referred to as Mannerism, the following paintings are audible as voices: Giorgio Vasari, Perseus and Andromedia, 1570 – 72; Sofonisba Anguissola, Portrait of the Artist’s Sister Minerva, c. 1559; Jacopo Tintoretto, The Last Super, 1592 – 94

Of the remaining period until modern times, and even though there is much that speaks, I will note only the art of Albrecht Dürer: The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, woodcut, c. 1497 – 98; Self-Portrait, painting, 1500; Knight, Death and Devil, engraving, 1513

The Modern Period: here I am being very selective and choose only those works that seem to speak to me from universal and even distant sources. I have probably included some that I would not; omitted some that I would. Cammille Corot, Morning: Dance of the Nymphs, painting, 1850. William Turner, The Slave Ship, 1840; Rain, Steam and Speed, 1844. Caspar David Friedrich, The Polar Sea, 1824. Paul Klee, Twittering Machine, 1922. Jackson Pollock, Autumn Rhythm: Number 30, 1950. Anselm Kiefer, To the Unknown Painter, 1983. Frank Lloyd Wright, Robie House, Chicago, 1909. Foster Associates, Honkong Bank, 1979 – 86. Ansel Adams, Monrise, Hernandez, New Mexico, 1941. Josef Sudek, View from Studio Window in Winter, 1954. Dorothea Lange, Migrant Mother, California, 1936. Mark Tansey, Derrida Queries de Man

Art – evocation and communication especially of “what is not said:” time, space, pattern [cause and law,] creation [pattern from nothingness and chaos,] nature, mood and will, feeling

Art divisions: literature, painting, sculpture, architecture, music, theatre

Art – concept: see Arthur Schopenhauer, The World as Will and Representation, details in the Great Western Philosophers, above

Art – history: H. W. Janson, History of Art